Seeds of South Australia
Billardiera sericophora (Pittosporaceae)
Silky apple-berry
List of species for Billardiera
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Seed collecting:
November to January
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Yorke Peninsula
NRM regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [query - not in Census]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [query - not in Census]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Billardiera]
Name derivation:
Billardiera named after Jacques Julien de La Billardiere (1755-1834), a 19th century French botanist who visited Western Australia and Tasmania with D'Entrecasteaux expedition and named many new plant species. Sericophora from the Latin 'sericeus' meaning silky and 'floris' meaning flower.
Distribution:
Endemic to South Australia. Found scattered across Yorke Peninsula and Eyre Peninsula.
Status:
Native. Rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Climbing perennial shrub with copper coloured stems covered in fine hairs. Leaves are green, hairless on top and covered in fine hairs on the underside. Flowers are yellow, bell-shaped and covered in white hairs at the base, appearing between August and December.
Fruit type:
A cylindrical berry covered in hairs, green and hard when immature and soft and dark purple when ripe.
Seed type:
Dark brown or black flat reniform seeds about 2mm long and covered in grooves.
Embryo type:
Linear underdeveloped.
Seed collecting:
Pick mature fruits by hand, those that are soft or have dark brown/black seeds inside.
Seed cleaning:
Clean ripe fruits as soon as possible as it will go hard if left to dry too long. Rub the fruits in water with your hands to dislodge the seeds from the fruit. Pour the mixture into a sieve to separate the seeds from the flesh. Place the wet seeds in a tray lined with paper and leave to dry for 1 to 2 days. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from 85% to 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that need to be overcome for the seed to germinate.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
2390 (6.24 g)
1550 (4.05 g)
1229-Nov-2006DJD580
Yorke Peninsula
1-Aug-200785%-18°C
BGA890 (2.99 g)411-Dec-2008TST693
Eyre Peninsula
20-Jul-2009100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
May 20070%NANA None.
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May 20070%NANA Washed in 1% pectinase solution on agitator (8hrs).
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May 20070%NANA Washed in 1% pectinase solution on agitator (8hrs) then leached in filtered water (5 days).
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May 20070%NANA Washed in 1% pectinase solution on agitator (8hrs). Seed allowed to dry and then exposed to aerosol smoke (15mins).
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May 20070%NANA Washed in 1% pectinase solution on agitator (8hrs) then leached in filtered water (5 days). Seed allowed to dry and then exposed to aerosol smoke (15mins).
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)