Seeds of South Australia
Casuarina pauper (Casuarinaceae)
Black Oak (Belah)
List of species for Casuarina
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   [not sure if regenerating]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [some good patches]
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Near Threatened   (Definite Decline)   [lack of regeneration]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Least Concern   [edge of range]
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Least Concern
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Carlisle (NUL01)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02) 
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Least Concern
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Barrier Range Outwash (BHC04) 
 Least Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Least Concern
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern
Dieri (SSD03)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [grazed]
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaNear Threatened
  (Definite Decline)   [lack of regeneration]
8 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
3 of 3 subregionsNullarborLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
2 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
Watarru (CER02)Central RangesLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Casuarina]
Name derivation:
Casuarina was first used by Rumphius (1743) in allusion to the supposed resemblance of the "foliage" of Casuarina equisetifolia to the plumage of the Cassowary, which is from the Malay 'kesuari', latter being latinised as Casuarius. Pauper from Latin meaning poor; referring to its depauperate habit of the species compared to Casuarina cristata, written in Ferdinand von Mueller hand writing on the holotype.
Distribution:
Found across much of South Australia, except on the southern Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island and the South-east, growing in red-brown soils with light-textured topsoil and calcareous subsoil. Also found in Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:Native. 
Common in South Australia. Uncommon in Queensland. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Greyish trees to 15 m high, sometimes suckering from roots. Stem (looks like leaves) mostly spreading, to 25 cm long with stem segments (articles) to 17 mm long and 1.8 mm diameter, strongly waxy, shortly and densely pubescent, ribs flat or with slight median groove. Teeth (reduced leaves) 9–13, spreading or recurved on new shoots. Male spikes to 3 cm long, golden. Cones on peduncle to to 14 mm long, subglobular or cylindric wit cone body to 22 mm long and 15 mm diameter.
Fruit type:
Golden brown woody cylindrical cone with numerous large protruding valves.
Seed type:
Yellow-brown ovoid seed to 8 mm long and 3 mm wide including the thin papery wing.
Embryo type:
Investing.
Seed collecting:
Cones can be collected anytime as mature cones remain on the female plant. Collect cones that have closed valves from the lower part of the stem as these are more mature.
Seed cleaning:
Place cones in a tray and leave to dry for 2-3 weeks. This will allow the valves to dry and open releasing the seeds. Place the dried cones in a bucket and shake gently to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate seeds from the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.