Seeds of South Australia
Chorizandra enodis (Cyperaceae)
Black Bristle-sedge
List of species for Chorizandra
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Seed collecting:
November to February
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Data Deficient
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [edge of range; at Topperwein]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Near Threatened
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling Depression
 Data Deficient
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Near Threatened
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainData Deficient
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainNear Threatened
, Rare
, Vulnerable
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
, Rare
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty BlockRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
2 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockRare
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionNear Threatened
, Rare
, Data Deficient
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Chorizandra]
Name derivation:
Chorizandra from the Greek 'chorizo' meaning to separate and 'aner' meaning a male; referring to the male flowers. Enodis from the Latin 'enodis' meaning without knots.
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia, on southern Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, southern Mount Lofty Ranges and the south-east, growing in damp places. Also found in Western Australia, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Rare in Tasmania. Uncommon in the other states.
Plant description:
Perennial sedge with slender but wiry stems to 30 cm high and 1 mm thick, arising from a creeping rhizome. Leaves basal, the inner stem-like, the outer reduced to sheathing bases. Flower-spike a dense globular reddish-black head to 12 mm diaeter, with a long slender stiff erect involucral bract. Flowers in spring and summer.
Fruit type:
Dense, dark brown to black spherical flower-heads.
Seed type:
Woody purple-brown ovoid nut to 2.5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, with a net-like striation on the surface.
Embryo type:
Capitate.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are brown and come off easily with your fingers.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leaves to dry for a week. Then rub the heads gently with a rubber bung to dislodge the seed. Use a sieve to separated the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were low to high, ranging from 30% to 95%
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
4200 (8.86 g)
4200 (8.86 g)
200+8-Nov-2006PJA143
South Eastern
1-Aug-200730%-18°C
BGA1600 (4.89 g)100+21-Dec-2010DJD2085
South Eastern
1-Jan-201295%
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
July 20162%21dNA Seeds nicked; soak in 500 mg/L GA plus 10% smoked water for 72 hrs
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 20160%NANA Seeds nicked; soak in 500 mg/L GA for 72 hrs
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)