Seeds of South Australia
Chorizandra enodis (Cyperaceae)
Black Bristle-sedge
List of species for Chorizandra
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Seed collecting:
November to February
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Data Deficient
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [edge of range; at Topperwein]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Near Threatened
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling Depression
 Data Deficient
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Near Threatened
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainData Deficient
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainNear Threatened
, Rare
, Vulnerable
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
, Rare
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty BlockRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
2 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockRare
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionNear Threatened
, Rare
, Data Deficient
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Chorizandra]
Name derivation:
Chorizandra from the Greek 'chorizo' meaning to separate and 'aner' meaning a male; referring to the male flowers. Enodis from the Latin 'enodis' meaning without knots.
Found in the southern part of South Australia, on southern Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, southern Mount Lofty Ranges and the south-east, growing in damp places. Also found in Western Australia, Victoria and Tasmania.
Native. Common in South Australia. Rare in Tasmania. Uncommon in the other states.
Plant description:
Perennial sedge with slender but wiry stems to 30 cm high and 1 mm thick, arising from a creeping rhizome. Leaves basal, the inner stem-like, the outer reduced to sheathing bases. Flower-spike a dense globular reddish-black head to 12 mm diaeter, with a long slender stiff erect involucral bract. Flowers in spring and summer.
Fruit type:
Dense, dark brown to black spherical flower-heads.
Seed type:
Woody purple-brown ovoid nut to 2.5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, with a net-like striation on the surface.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are brown and come off easily with your fingers.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leaves to dry for a week. Then rub the heads gently with a rubber bung to dislodge the seed. Use a sieve to separated the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were low to high, ranging from 30% to 95%
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
4200 (8.86 g)
4200 (8.86 g)
South Eastern
BGA1600 (4.89 g)100+21-Dec-2010DJD2085
South Eastern
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
July 20162%21dNA Seeds nicked; soak in 500 mg/L GA plus 10% smoked water for 72 hrs
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 20160%NANA Seeds nicked; soak in 500 mg/L GA for 72 hrs
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)