Seeds of South Australia
Chrysocephalum apiculatum (Compositae)
Common Yellow Button
List of species for Chrysocephalum
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Seed collecting:
January to February, November
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   [quite widespread]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Torrens (GAW06)Gawler
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Warriner (SSD04)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [limited habitat]
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Least Concern
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [limited habitat]
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Least Concern
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Least Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Least Concern
Pedirka (FIN04) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
3 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
3 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
2 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
, Rare
7 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
2 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryRare
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsFinkeLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Chrysocephalum]
Name derivation:
Chrysocephalum from the Greek 'chryso' meaning golden and 'cephalus' meaning a head; referring to the golden flower heads. Apiculatum from Latin meaning abruptly, short point; referring to the leaves ending abruptly in a short point.
Distribution:
Found across all parts of South Australia, growing in many varied situations but usually on open sites. Also found in all states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Ascending to erect perennial herb to 60 cm high with stems and branches covered in cottony hairs. Leaves oblanceolate to obovate, to 60 mm long and 25 mm wide, acuminate to rounded, apiculate, base often stem-clasping, margins flat or recurved, surfaces with cottony hairs, sometimes more densely beneath. Flower-heads in terminal clusters with 3 to many golden-yellow or tinged brown daisy flowers. Flowering between August and December.
Fruit type:
Pale brown fluffy daisy-head.
Seed type:
Dark brown oblong seed to 1 mm long and 0.2 mm wide, smooth surface and with long feather-liked pappus.
Embryo type:
Spatulate.
Seed collecting:
Collect whole heads that are brown and fluffy or collect just the seeds by plucking it off with your fingers. Mature seeds are easily removed.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray for a week to dry. Then pluck the seeds from the head with your finders. Viable seeds will be fat and brown. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
149666 (4.55+4.55 g)
149666
27618-Dec-2003PJA 73
Murray
23-Mar-2006+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
October 2014100%10d10d None
0.7% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
October 2014100%10d10d Soak in 250 mg/L GA3 for 24 hours
0.7% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
October 201486%10d10d Soak in 250 mg/L GA3 for 24 hours
0.7% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
October 201484%10d10d None
0.7% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
October 201450%10d34d None
0.7% water agar
Incubated under summer conditions
October 201419%10dNA Soak in 250 mg/L GA3 for 24 hours
0.7% water agar
Incubated under summer conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)