Seeds of South Australia
Chthonocephalus pseudevax (Compositae)
Ground-heads
List of species for Chthonocephalus
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [very flat, tiny sp; edge of range]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [very flat, tiny sp; edge of range]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Data Deficient   [Trampled by stock. Data deficient.]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Data Deficient
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [undercollected]
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Data Deficient   [Trampled by stock]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Data Deficient   [Pt Aug record dodgy & nthn record prob in GV]
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern   [undercollected]
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Data Deficient   [Trampled by stock. Data deficient]
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Data Deficient   [Trampled by stock. Data deficient.]
Oodnadatta (STP02)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Least Concern
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Least Concern
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Least Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [very flat, tiny sp; edge of range]
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
, Data Deficient
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
, Data Deficient
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
5 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Data Deficient
4 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
2 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexData Deficient
2 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)FinkeLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Chthonocephalus]
Name derivation:
Chthonocephalus from the Greek 'khthonos' meaning ground and 'kephale' meaning head; referring to the inflorescences which rest on the ground. Pseudevax  from the Greek 'pseudo' meaning false and 'evax' a genus in the Family Compositae; alluding the flower heads being similar to the genus Evax.
Distribution:
Found across much of South Australia, growing in open sites in both temperate and arid habitats, most often in sand or sandy loam depressions. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Very small groung hugging herb consisting of a compound head, surrounded by a basal rosette to 4 cm in diameter with10-30 leaves. Leaves oblanceolate to obovate, to 20 mm long and 4 mm wide, tomentose. Flower dense yellow daisies. Flowers throughout the year but mainly during spring.
Fruit type:
Yellow-brown dense daisy-head.
Seed type:
Very small brown ovoid seed to 0.5 mm long and 0.2 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect whole plants that are drying off, pale yellow-brown in colour and contain fine brown seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the plants in a tray for one to two week to dry. Then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Be care as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
March 201488%8d8d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under winter conditions
March 201480%8d8d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)