Seeds of South Australia
Codonocarpus cotinifolius (Gyrostemonaceae)
Poplar Bell-fruit
List of species for Codonocarpus
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Seed collecting:
June to October
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Regionally Extinct   [Possibly extinct]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Regionally Extinct   [Possibly extinct]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [grazing a threat, short-lived]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [grazing a threat, short-lived]
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA c(i))   [prone to grazing; likes disturbance]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA c(i))   [prone to grazing; likes disturbance]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA c(i))   [prone to grazing; likes disturbance]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA c(i))   [prone to grazing; likes disturbance]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [grazing a threat, short-lived]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [grazing a threat, short lived]
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [grazing a threat, short lived]
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Least Concern
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Witjira (STP06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [grazed]
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [grazed]
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Least Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Pedirka (FIN04) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty BlockRegionally Extinct
  [Possibly extinct]
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockRare
, Regionally Extinct
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionRare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA c(i))   [prone to grazing; likes disturbance]
5 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
2 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsRare
2 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryRare
2 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsFinkeLeast Concern
, Rare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Codonocarpus]
Name derivation:
Codonocarpus from the Greek 'kodon' meaning a crier's bell and 'karpos' meaning a fruit; alluding to the shape of the fruit. Cotinifolius means to have leaves like the genus Cotinus (Smokebush).
Distribution:
Found in the semi-arid part of South Australia, from the Murray to the north-west corner, growing in a wide range of habitats but usually in sandy soils and often common in disturbed areas especially after fires. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Uncommon in South Australia. Uncommon in the other states. More common post fire.
Plant description:
Short-lived shrubs or trees to 8 m tall, usually obconical in shape. Leaves obovate or oblanceolate, rarely elliptic or almost orbicular in young plants, to 50 mm long and 40 mm wide, acute or obtuse, glaucous. Male flowers on pedicels to 4 mm long and 6 mm across at anthesis, calyx scarcely lobed to almost circular, female flowers often borne on branches below the male flowers or below the terminal vegetative growth, with pedicels to 20 mm long, calyx shallowly lobed to almost circular, with 30 or more carpels each with a terminal stigma arranged around the top of the central axis. Flowering between March and June.
Fruit type:
Pale brown bell-shaped fruit to 14 mm long formed from multiple seed segments.
Seed type:
Dark brown to red reniform seeds to 3.5 mm long and 2 mm wide, with a rugose surface and a yellowish aril.
Embryo type:
Curved linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruits when the segments are about to fall apart, usually when colour changes to pale brown.
Seed cleaning:
Place the fruits in a tray and leave to dry for a week. Then rub the fruit gently by hand to dislodge the seeds from the papery wing. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
No information available.
Seed germination:
This species is generally difficult to germinate, it has morphophysiological dormancy and complex germination requirements. This species is considered a fire responsive species.