Seeds of South Australia
Conospermum patens (Proteaceae)
Slender Smoke-bush
List of species for Conospermum
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Seed collecting:
September to February
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Data Deficient   [1 old record, could be extinct]
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Near Threatened   [needs fire disturbance for recruitment; localised; limited habitat; Mt Compass & Waitpinga]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [fire regimes need to be considered; needs deep sand]
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern   [deep sand]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [deep sand]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1+2)   (Probable Decline)   [restricted to Ferries Mac & Monarto CP; edge of range]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [needs fire ]
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainData Deficient
  [1 old record, could be extinct]
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Rare
, Vulnerable
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty BlockRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [fire regimes need to be considered; needs deep sand]
2 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionNear Threatened
, Rare
, Vulnerable
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Conospermum]
Name derivation:
Conospermum from the Latin 'conus' meaning a cone and 'spermum' meaning a seed; alluding to the obconical nuts. Patens means spreading; alluding to the species habit.
Found in the southern part of South Australia, from the southern Eyre Peninsula to the lower South-east, growing in sandy rarely clay soil in sclerophyllous shrubland or woodland. Also foun in Victoria.
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in Victoria.
Plant description:
Erect shrub to 2 m high with white-pubescent branches.  Leaves widely spreading, distally upturned, linear to linear-oblanceolate, to 25 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, glabrescent. Flower-spikes terminal or in the upper axils with  dense white, grey-blue or lilac flowers. Flowering between April and January.
Fruit type:
Pale brown fruit cluster at end of stalk, each with a number of seeds.
Seed type:
Cone-shaped nut to 2.5 mm long, covered in short golden brown hairs with a ring of longer hairs around the margin of the cone.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collecting mature fruit-heads, those turning brown and contain hard seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks. Then rub the dried heads with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability was average, ranging from 50% to 55%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
1700 (3.95 g)
1700 (3.95 g)
Southern Lofty
BGA4900 (8.04 g)14-Dec-2005TEE009
Kangaroo Island
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.