Seeds of South Australia
Correa calycina var. halmaturorum (Rutaceae)
De Mole River Correa
List of species for Correa
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Seed collecting:
January to May
Herbarium region:
Kangaroo Island
NRM region:
Kangaroo Island
IBRA region
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   [only known from 1 location, Cape Torrens, De Mole River; threat: flooding by brackish water]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Correa]
Name derivation:
Correa named after Jose Francisco Correa de Serra (1751-1823), a Portuguese botanist. Calycina from the Greek 'kalux' meaning case of bud, husk; referring to its persistent (or conspicuous) calyx. Halmaturina is derived from Halmaturus, a generic name once applied to kangaroos, and is from the Greek 'halme' meaning a leap or bound, and commonly used as an epithet for species from Kangaroo Island.
Endemic to South Australia and found only in the De Mole River area on Kangaroo Island, growing along the river banks in deep damp soil overlying shale in Eucalyptus cladocalyx forest.
Native. Very rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Tall dense shrub to 3 m high and 2 m wide with stems covered in dense strongly rusty-flocculose (small egg-shaped lobe).  Leaves oblong-elliptic, to 4 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, margin slightly recurved, obtuse, scabridulous above, densely fawn- to rusty-stellate-hairy below. Inflorescence solitary on lateral or axillary branchlets with tubular, green often darkening to mauve flowers, calyx lobes lanceolate-acuminate. This variety differ from the other variety found in South Australia, Correa calycina var. calycina which have sparsely to moderately dense stellate-hairs on the underside of the leaves rather than dense stellate-hairs. Flowering between October and March.
Fruit type:
Pale brown capsule with 1- 4 segments enclose by the sepals.
Seed type:
Dark brown mottled reinform seed to 4.3 mm long and 2.3 mm wide, with a smooth surface.
Embryo type:
Linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that are turning a pale straw colour and contain hard seeds, either by hands or place small breathable bags over immature capsules to collect seed. Capsules maybe hard to see as it is enclose by the green sepals.

In 2016 a field collecting trip to Kangaroo Island achieved the first seed collection of this rare Kangaroo Island endemic with the support of the Australian Seed Bank Partnership. A field trip in April 2017 will aim to achieve further collections for this species.

Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for a weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Be very careful as the seed coat is thin and easily damaged. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
This species has morphophysiological dormancy and can be difficult to germinate.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jun-177%56NA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jun-170%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)