Seeds of South Australia
Achnophora tatei (Compositae)
Kangaroo Island Daisy
List of species for Achnophora
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Seed collecting:
October to December
Herbarium region:
Kangaroo Island
NRM region:
Kangaroo Island
IBRA region
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(iii))   (Probable Decline)   [endemic to KI; B Overton & R Bates: declining due to salinity; highly limited distribution]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Achnophora]
Name derivation:
Achnophora from the Greek 'achne' meaning chaff and 'phoros' meaning bearing, referring to the conspicuous scales of the receptacle and of the pappus. Tatei named in honour of Ralph Tate (1840-1901), Professor of Natural Science, Adelaide.
Distribution:
Endemic to South Australia and found only on Kangaroo Island, on edges of streams and seasonally marshy ground.
Status:
Native. Rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Small daisy with long, narrow, rounded basal leaves. Flowers are white to light pink daisies, one on each stalk. Flowering between September and November.
Fruit type:
Dried daisy-head. (capitulum)
Seed type:
Brown to reddish-brown, cone-shaped achenes to 1.5 mm long and 1 mm wide, covered in short hairs with  golden pappus bristles at one end.
Embryo type:
Spatulate.
Seed collecting:
Pick maturing daisy-heads by hand, when dried off and turning brown with red-brown seeds inside.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for 1-2 weeks. Then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability was high, ranging from  95% to 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.  
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA5000 (2.13 g)100+11-Aug-2008TST567
Kangaroo Island
20-Jul-2009100%+5°C, -18°C
BGA 
MSB
4200 (2.18 g)
4200 (2.18 g)
100+11-Nov-2008DJD1250
Kangaroo Island
20-Jul-200995%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
May 200996%14d21d None.
1% water agar.
Incubated under winter conditions
May 200996%14d14d None.
1% water agar supplemented with 100mg/L KNO3.
Incubated under winter conditions
May 200974%14d36d None.
1% water agar supplemented with 250mg/L GA3 (pH adjusted to 6.5).
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)