Seeds of South Australia
Cotula australis (Compositae)
Australian Waterbuttons
List of species for Cotula
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Seed collecting:
October to February
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Near Threatened   [likes disturbance, grows on roadsides]
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Near Threatened   [likes disturbance, grows on roadsides]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Near Threatened   [likes disturbance, grows on roadsides]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern   [likes disturbance, grows on roadsides]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern   [likes disturbance, grows on roadsides]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   [quite widespread]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern   [weedy like]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern   [weedy like]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [Drought a threat]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [Drought a threat. One population in HA area. Probable decline.]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [Drought a threat]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA b)   (Definite Decline)   [Drought a threat]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern   [undercollected]
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   [restricted to river; needs damp soil]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern   [likes disturbance, grows on roadsides]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Near Threatened
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Near Threatened   [likes disturbance, grows on roadsides]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern   [needs damp soil]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainNear Threatened
  [likes disturbance, grows on roadsides]
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
4 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
4 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
  [needs damp soil]
2 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Cotula]
Name derivation:
Cotula from the Medieval Latin 'cotula', which is from the Greek 'kotyle' meaning a small cup; referring to the shape of the involucre. Australis meaning of or from the south, or Australia; referring to its more southern distribution.
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia, growing in open grassy vegetation near water. Also found in all states. May be introduced in the Northern Territory.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states. Introduced in the Northern Territory.
Plant description:
Ascending annual or short-lived perennial to 10 cm high with weak stems rooting at nodes. Leaves obovate to oblanceolate in outline, to 40 mm long and 10 mm wide, 1–2-pinnatisect, attenuate at base, sparsely to densely hairy. Flower heads to 6 mm diameter, terminal and axillary with yellow-green daisy flower. Flowering between July and November.
Fruit type:
Dense pale brown daisy head.
Seed type:
Two types of seeds, pale brown ovoid seed to 2.5 mm long and 2 mm wide with a thick wing along the margin and dark brown ovoid seed to 1.7 mm long and 0.8 mm wide with no wing.
Embryo type:
Spatulate.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are drying off and turning brown, mature seeds should fall off easily.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray for a week to dry. Then rub the heads gently with your hands or a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Be careful as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
11700 (1.36 g)
11700 (1.36 g)
501-Oct-2007RJB74639
South Eastern
19-Sep-2008100%-18°C
BGA15000 (1.37 g)50+8-Oct-2008DJD1253
Kangaroo Island
20-Jul-2009100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.