Seeds of South Australia
Craspedia haplorrhiza (Compositae)
Plains Billy-buttons
List of species for Craspedia
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Seed collecting:
October to January
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Northern Lofty, Murray
NRM regions:
Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Data Deficient   [No survey records since re-naming. Naturally rare. Data deficient.]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Data Deficient   [No survey records since re-naming. Naturally rare. Data deficient.]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [grazed; restricted to good soils; outlier; no recent records]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Data Deficient   [No survey records since re-naming. Naturally rare. Data deficient.]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Craspedia]
Name derivation:
Craspedia from the Greek 'kraspedon' meaning a hem or border; referring to the woolly fringes on the leaves of the type species or the feathery pappus of some species. Haplorrhiza from the Greek 'haploos' meaning single and 'rhiza' meaning root.
Distribution:
Found in the southern Flinders Ranges, Mount Lofty Ranges and along the Murray in South Australia, growing on heavy soils, on floodplains. Also found in Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Uncommon in South Australia. Rare in Western Australia and Queensland. Uncommon in Victoria. Common in New South Wales.
Plant description:
Erect annual herb to 15 cm high. Leaves basal and cauline, spathulate to oblanceolate, to 8 cm long and 12 mm wide, pale green, with glandular hairs and multiseptate hairs and woolly margin. Flower-heads solitary, globular or depressed-globular, to 4 cm in diameter, yellow. Flowering between July and December.
Fruit type:
Yellow-white, globular daisy-head.
Seed type:
Brown ovoid seed to 2.5 mm long and 1 mm wide, covered in white hairs.
Embryo type:
Spathulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are drying off, fluffy and turning yellow-white with hard brown seeds. Pick off whole heads or pluck of mature seeds with your fingers.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 98%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
June 2013100%8d8d No pre-treatment
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberellic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under winter conditions
June 2013100%8d8d No pre-treatment
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberellic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 2012100%8d8d None
1% water agar supplemented with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid
Incubated under winter conditions
June 2012100%8d8d None
1% water agar supplemented with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 201392%8d8d No pre-treatment
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 100mg/L Potassium Nitrate
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 201292%8d8d None
1% water agar supplemented with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 201390%8d8d No pre-treatment
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 100mg/L Potassium Nitrate
Incubated under winter conditions
June 201290%8d8d None
1% water agar supplemented with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate
Incubated under winter conditions
June 201374%8d8d Control: No pre-treatment
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 201274%8d8d None
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 201368%8d8d Control: No pre-treatment
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under winter conditions
June 201268%8d8d None
1% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)