Seeds of South Australia
Cratystylis conocephala (Compositae)
Blue-bush Daisy
List of species for Cratystylis
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Seed collecting:
December to February
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ab)   (Probable Decline)   [On edge of range. Threatened by rabbits.]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ab)   (Probable Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ab)   (Probable Decline)   [On edge of range. Threatened by rabbits.]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ab)   (Probable Decline)   [often with chenopods]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [slow ongoing decline; longlived spp; no recruitment seen]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [slow ongoing decline; longlived spp; no recruitment seen]
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ab)   (Probable Decline)
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Near Threatened
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Least Concern
Hampton (HAM01)Hampton
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
3 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockRare
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
7 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
2 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 3 subregionsNullarborLeast Concern
Hampton (HAM01)HamptonLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Cratystylis]
Name derivation:
Cratystylis from the Greek 'cratys' meaning strong and 'stylos' meaning column, style, referring to the robust and rigid style. Conocephala from the Greek 'cono' meaning cone and 'cephale' meaning head, alluding to the cone-shaped flower-head.
Found along a central band from the Nullabor to the New South Wales border growing in mallee, myall, coastal scrub and woodland on calcareous loam and sandy soils. Also found in Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria.
Native. Common in South Australia. Very rare in New South Wales and Victoria. Common in Western Australia.
Plant description:
Silver or blue-grey perennial shrub to 1.8 m high with erect, densely branched stems, forming a trunk with fibrous bark. Leaves obovate to cuneate to 10 mm long and 4 mm wide, with both surfaces white to grey-tomentose; midvein distinct. Flower-head terminal, solitary; sessile on leafy branchlets, with white daisy-flowers. Flowering between September and December.
Fruit type:
Pale yellow, long daisy-head.
Seed type:
Plae bown, narrowly cylindric seed to 7 mm long, with 50-100 pappus bristles.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect seeds by picking the heads when they are turning brown and easily come away from the plant.
Seed cleaning:
Leave the heads in a paper bag to dry for at least a week. No further cleaning required if only heads are collected. Store the dried heads with a desicant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily. Germination 95% on 1% w/v agar,  8/16 dark/light, 15°C. See
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
12135 (24+24 g)
6821-Jan-2004MKJ 21
Eyre Peninsula
23-Mar-2006+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-04100%7 d10 d leached in water 48 h;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-0498%7 d10 d 100 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-040%NANA dry heat 120°C oven 10 min;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)