Seeds of South Australia
Cullen australasicum (Leguminosae)
Native Scurf-pea
List of species for Cullen
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [not common; perennial; occurs on rocky slopes, gorges; 2013 a good year]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened   [not common; perennial; occurs on rocky slopes, gorges; 2013 a good year]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i) )   (Probable Decline)   [grazed]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))   [localised]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU C2a(i))   (Definite Decline)   [can survive in pretty disturbed locations]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [along river]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [only comes up after rain]
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [only comes up after rain]
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern   [only comes up after rain]
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Near Threatened
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Near Threatened
Kintore (GVD04)Great Victoria Desert
 Near Threatened
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [lack of habitat]
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))
Dieri (SSD03)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Least Concern
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern
Diamantina-Eyre (CHC04) 
 Least Concern
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Least Concern
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Least Concern
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Near Threatened
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Least Concern
Pedirka (FIN04)Finke
 Near Threatened
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [not common; perennial; occurs on rocky slopes, gorges; 2013 a good year]
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke BlockVulnerable
  (IUCN: VU C2a(i))   (Definite Decline)   [can survive in pretty disturbed locations]
2 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionRare
5 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
2 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertNear Threatened
, Rare
3 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexRare
3 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
7 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
Pedirka (FIN04)FinkeNear Threatened
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Cullen]
Name derivation:
Cullen named after William Cullen (1710-1790), a Scottish physician and chemist who lectured at the University of Glasgow on botany,  among other things. Australasicum means of or from Australasia, New Zealand.
Distribution:
Found across South Australia except on Kangaroo Island, the south-east, Eyre Peninsula and the Nullarbor growing on heavy soils, sandy loam near creeks and floodplains. Also found in all mainland States.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Very rare in Victoria. Rare in Western Australia. Common in the other States.
Plant description:
Erect or ascending, much-branched shrub to 2.5 m tall with pubescent stems, glabrescent with age; striate, dotted with glands. Leaves pinnately tri-foliate to 12 cm long. Leaflets ovate to lanceolate, to 5 cm long and 30 mm wide; upper surface glabrous to sparsely hairy; lower surface pubescent, both surfaces dotted with glands; apices obtuse, mucronate, margins irregularly toothed. Flower spike terminal with pink to violet-pink pea-flowers, persistent in fruit. Flowers all year round, depending on rainfall.
Fruit type:
Black ovoid pod to 4.5 mm long; hairy with one seed inside.
Seed type:
Brown bean-shaped seed to 3 mm long and 2 mm wide, covered in long hairs.
Embryo type:
Bent.
Seed collecting:
Collect maturing pods, those that are fat, turning black and contain a brown seed inside, by running your hands along the fruit-spikes.
Seed cleaning:
Place the pods in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks or until the pods begin to split. Then rub the dried pods to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has physical dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking or softening the seed coat).
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA4400 (22.19 g)203-Jan-2008TST313
Southern Lofty
19-Sep-2008100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Mar-15100%7 d7 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-15100%7 d7 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-1514%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-1512%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)