Seeds of South Australia
Cullen australasicum (Leguminosae)
Native Scurf-pea
List of species for Cullen
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [not common; perennial; occurs on rocky slopes, gorges; 2013 a good year]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened   [not common; perennial; occurs on rocky slopes, gorges; 2013 a good year]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i) )   (Probable Decline)   [grazed]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))   [localised]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU C2a(i))   (Definite Decline)   [can survive in pretty disturbed locations]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [along river]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [only comes up after rain]
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [only comes up after rain]
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern   [only comes up after rain]
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Near Threatened
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Near Threatened
Kintore (GVD04)Great Victoria Desert
 Near Threatened
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [lack of habitat]
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))
Dieri (SSD03)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Least Concern
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern
Diamantina-Eyre (CHC04) 
 Least Concern
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Least Concern
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Least Concern
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Near Threatened
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Least Concern
Pedirka (FIN04)Finke
 Near Threatened
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [not common; perennial; occurs on rocky slopes, gorges; 2013 a good year]
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke BlockVulnerable
  (IUCN: VU C2a(i))   (Definite Decline)   [can survive in pretty disturbed locations]
2 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionRare
5 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
2 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertNear Threatened
, Rare
3 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexRare
3 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
7 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
Pedirka (FIN04)FinkeNear Threatened
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Cullen]
Name derivation:
Cullen named after William Cullen (1710-1790), a Scottish physician and chemist who lectured at the University of Glasgow on among other things botany. Australasicum means of or from Australasia, New Zealand.
Distribution:
Found across South Australia, except on Kangaroo Island, the south-east, Eyre Peninsula and the Nullabor, growing on heavy soils, sandy loam near creeks an floodplains. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Very rare in Victoria. Rare in Western Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect or ascending much-branched shrub to 2.5 m tall with pubescent stems, glabrescent with age, striate, dotted with glands. Leaves pinnately tri-foliolate, to 12 cm long. Leaflets ovate to lanceolate, to 5 cm long and 30 mm wide, upper surface glabrous to sparsely hairy, lower surface pubescent, both surfaces dotted with glands, apices obtuse, mucronate, margins irregularly toothed. Flower spike terminal with pink to violet-pink pea-flowers, persistent in fruit. Flowers all year round, depending on rainfall.
Fruit type:
Black ovoid pod to 4.5 mm long, hairy with one seed inside.
Seed type:
Brown bean-shaped seed to 3 mm long and 2 mm wide, covered in long hairs.
Embryo type:
Bent.
Seed collecting:
Collect maturing pods, those that are fat, turning black and contain a brown seed inside, by running your hands along the fruit-spikes.
Seed cleaning:
Place the pods in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks or until the pods begin to split. Then rub the dried pods to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has physical dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking or softening the seed coat).
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA4400 (22.19 g)203-Jan-2008TST313
Southern Lofty
19-Sep-2008100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
March 2015100%7d7d seed coat nicked
1% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
March 2015100%7d7d seed coat nicked
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
March 201514%7dNA None
1% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
March 201512%7dNA None
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)