Seeds of South Australia
Cullen graveolens (Leguminosae)
Native Lucerne
List of species for Cullen
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Seed collecting:
August to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Northern Flinders (FLB05)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [needs rain]
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [needs rain]
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Near Threatened   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Kintore (GVD04)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern   [on edge of range]
Dieri (SSD03)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Near Threatened   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Near Threatened   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Near Threatened   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [(no records, but would occur here)]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Northern Flinders (FLB05)Flinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
  [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
5 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
Kintore (GVD04)Great Victoria DesertRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [ephemeral, likes stony country, flood-outs, spreads easily]
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
  [on edge of range]
3 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsNear Threatened
, Rare
6 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
2 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central RangesRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [(no records, but would occur here)]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Cullen]
Name derivation:
Cullen named after William Cullen (1710-1790), a Scottish physician and chemist who lectured at the University of Glasgow on among other things botany. Graveolens from the Latin 'gravis' meaning heavy and 'oleo' meaning smell; referring to the unpleasant smell of the plant.
Distribution:
Found in the northern part of South Australia from Port August, growing on heavy soils in wet depressions, floodplains and watercourses. Also found in Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Prostrate, annual perhaps biennial or a short-lived perennial herb, with several radiating finally ascending herbaceous aromatic 10-50cm long stems, pubescent with strigose brown and white hairs. Leaves long-petiolate, to 7 cm long, with 3 petiolulate rhomboid-ovate or rhomboid-lanceolate leaflets, the median one on a 5-7 mm long petiolule, largest, to 4 cm long and 1.5 cm wide, irregularly denticulate, with black dots, glabrescent above, underneath with white appressed strigulose hairs mostly confined to the veins. Flower-spike to 6 cm long with white pea-flowers with purple-dotted keel.  Flowering between August and september.
Fruit type:
Black elliptical pod to 3 mm long, hairy, dotted all over with wart-like glands, one seed.
Seed type:
Brown bean-shaped seed to 3 mm long and 2 mm wide, covered with round warty projections and short hairs.
Embryo type:
Bent.
Seed collecting:
Collect maturing pods, those that are fat, turning black and contain a brown seed inside, by running your hands along the fruit-spikes.
Seed cleaning:
Place the pods in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks or until the pods begin to split. Then rub the dried pods to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 95%.
Seed germination:
This species has physical dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking or softening the seed coat).
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
2300 (9 g)
2300 (9 g)
26-Aug-2008TST417
Lake Eyre
20-Jul-200995%-18°C
BGA1500 (3.89 g)30+3-Nov-2010MJT333
Lake Eyre
1-Jan-2012100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.