Seeds of South Australia
Cynoglossum australe (Boraginaceae)
Australian Hound's-tongue
List of species for Cynoglossum
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
December to February
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Least Concern
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Least Concern
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [more records along coast]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [grows in degraded areas; moved by roos]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [sprayed; grows in degraded areas; moved by roos]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))   [limited habitat]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))   [restricted, wetter habitats]
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range; grows in limestone; on roadsides]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Near Threatened   [edge of range]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Kintore (GVD04)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Least Concern
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooRare
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02)GawlerRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Kintore (GVD04)Great Victoria DesertLeast Concern
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Cynoglossum]
Name derivation:
Cynoglossum from the Greek 'kynoglosson', name of a plant used by Dioscorides, from the Greek 'kynos' meaning a dog and 'glossa' meaning a tongue; alluding to the shape and texture of the leaves. Australe means of or from the south; referring to the distribution of the species in Australia.
Distribution:
Found in the far north-west and southern parts of South Australia, growing in various communities from sclerophyll forest and woodland to sand dunes, also invades disturbed sites. Also found in all states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Uncommon in Western Australia and Tasmania. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Annual hern to 60 cm high, with one to usually several erect stems from the basal rosette, with a tap root, covered with spreading to appressed hairs. Leaves densely clustered, oblanceolate, subpetiolate but with a short sheath in the basal rosette becoming widely spaced, lanceolate and sessile below the inflorescence, to 25 cm long and 4 cm wide, pointed, rarely with undulate margins. Flower-spike terminal with pedicellate funnel-shaped, blue flowers. Flowering between July and November.
Fruit type:
Brown fruit cluster with upto four seeds hanging along fruiting spike.
Seed type:
Brown ovoid to globose seed to 4 mm long and 2.5 mm wide covered in barbed spines to most of the surface.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect maturing fruits, those turning brown and contain a hard seed inside, by running your hands along the fruiting spike or break off the whole spike. Wear gloves as fruits can be prickly.
Seed cleaning:
Place the seeds/spikes in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. No further cleaning is required if only seed collected. If seed spikes collected, use hand to strip off the mature seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
9000 (41.2 g)
9000 (41.2 g)
35+24-Jan-2006KHB047
Southern Lofty
28-Jul-2006100%-18°C
BGA 
MSB
11000 (44.7 g)
11000 (44.72 g)
50+25-Jan-2006DJD359
Southern Lofty
28-Jul-2006100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
July 2006100%4d10d None
Sterile filter paper overlyinig dampened wettex sponge material in glass petri dishes. Plates were irrigated twice a week with 1ml sterile distilled water.
10/14 dark/light  /  10°C/14°C
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)