Seeds of South Australia
Cyperus alterniflorus (Cyperaceae)
Umbrella Flat-sedge
List of species for Cyperus
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Seed collecting:
November to April
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Olary Spur (FLB03)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Definite Decline)   [DD]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Near Threatened   [in creeks with seepage]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Near Threatened   [in creeks with seepage]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [southern limit, needs seeping water, rocky hills]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs seeping water, rocky hills]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs seeping water, rocky hills]
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs seeping water, rocky hills]
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs seeping water, rocky hills]
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))   [in creeks with seepage]
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [in creeks with seepage]
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs seeping water, rocky hills]
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Definite Decline)   [DD]
Warriner (SSD04)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [in creeks with seepage]
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Near Threatened   [in creeks with seepage]
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Near Threatened   [in creeks with seepage]
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Near Threatened   [in creeks with seepage]
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Near Threatened   [in creeks with seepage]
Macumba (STP05) 
 Near Threatened   [in creeks with seepage]
Witjira (STP06) 
 Near Threatened   [in creeks with seepage]
Baltana (STP07) 
 Near Threatened   [in creeks with seepage]
Everard Block (CER03)Central Ranges
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [in creeks with seepage]
Pedirka (FIN04)Finke
 Near Threatened   [in creeks with seepage]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
4 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
2 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
6 of 8 subregionsGawlerRare
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria DesertRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs seeping water, rocky hills]
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill ComplexRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Definite Decline)   [DD]
Warriner (SSD04)Simpson Strzelecki DunefieldsRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [in creeks with seepage]
7 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsNear Threatened
Everard Block (CER03)Central RangesRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [in creeks with seepage]
Pedirka (FIN04)FinkeNear Threatened
  [in creeks with seepage]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Cyperus]
Name derivation:
Cyperus from the Latin 'cyperos' and derived from the Greek 'kypeiros', an ancient Greek name used by Homer and Theophrastus for several plants of this genus. Alterniflora from Latin meaning alternating flowers.
Distribution:
Found in the northern part of South Australia, growing in semi-permanent moist situations such as stream banks and rocky gullies. Also found in Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Uncommon in Northern Territory. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect, tufted perennial sedge to 150 cm high, shortly rhizomatous. Stems stout, trigonous, striate, smooth or scabrous at the top. Leaves mostly longer than the stems, to 12 mm broad, the margins remotely scabrous, keeled. Bracts leaf-like, 3-6, much longer than the inflorescence. Inflorescence compound, the rays 5-8, to 15 cm long but usually much shorter, spikelets in more or less dense globular clusters, reddish or pale-brown, oblong to narrow-ovate, compressed, to 17 mm long and 4 mm wide, 6-18-flowered, frequently deciduous as a whole at maturity. Flowering between August and October.
Fruit type:
Red-brown globular fruit-head in clusters at the terminal of stems.
Seed type:
Pale brown  oblong, triangular seed to 2 mm long and 0.5 mm wide, covered with a thin shiny transparent layer.
Embryo type:
Capitate.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruits by picking off the mature heads, those turning red-brown colour and come-off easily.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from 80% to 85%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA18000 (5.56 g)1013-Dec-2007RJB76643
Flinders Ranges
19-Sep-200885%-18°C
BGA78000 (14.66 g)50+2-Apr-2007RJB70981
Flinders Ranges
19-Sep-200880%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
August 201594%7d14d None
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
August 201582%7d14d soak in 250 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water for 24 hrs
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
August 201564%7d14d Leach in RO water for 7 days
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)