Seeds of South Australia
Cyperus gunnii ssp. gunnii (Cyperaceae)
Flecked Flat-sedge
List of species for Cyperus
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Seed collecting:
November to March
Herbarium regions:
Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Glenelg Plain (NCP02)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Near Threatened
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [edge of range]
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Cyperus]
Name derivation:
Cyperus from the Latin 'cyperos' and derived from the Greek 'kypeiros', an ancient Greek name used by Homer and Theophrastus for several plants of this genus. Gunnii named in honour of Ronald Campbell Gunn (1808-1881), a pioneer botanist and scientist in Tasmania.
Distribution:
Found in the Mount Lofty Ranges and the South-east in South Australia, growing in swamp, seasonally wet areas and along creeks. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Uncommon in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Tall, tufted perennial sedge with short thick rhizome. Stems trigonous to terete, smooth or occasionally scabrous, to 150 cm high and 4 mm diameter. Leaves septate-nodulose, as long as or exceeding the stem, to 6.5 mm wide. Inflorescence simple to compound with 5–8 primary branches to 12 cm long, clusters dense, globose, to 2 cm diameter, involucral bracts leaf-like, 2 or 3 much longer than inflorescence. Spikelets flattened, numerous per cluster, to 15 mm long and 2.5 mm wide in side view, 6–15-flowered, usually red-brown to dark red-brown. Flowers in spring and summer.
Fruit type:
Brown fruit-head in dense clusters.
Seed type:
Orange-brown long ovoid seed to 2.3 mm long and 0.5 mm wide, fine meshed-like surface.
Embryo type:
Capitate.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruits either by picking off the mature heads, those turning brown and come-off easily or break-off the whole heads.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was low, at 45%.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
August 201596%14d14d soak in 250 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water for 24 hrs
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
August 201590%7d14d leach in RO water for 7 days
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
August 201588%14d14d None
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)