Seeds of South Australia
Cyperus gymnocaulos (Cyperaceae)
Spiny Sedge
List of species for Cyperus
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Lucindale (NCP03)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [highly localised]
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [highly localised]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [highly localised]
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Near Threatened
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [highly localised]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [highly localised]
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [highly localised]
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [highly localised]
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Simpson Desert (SSD02)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern
Dieri (SSD03) 
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Least Concern
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern
Diamantina-Eyre (CHC04) 
 Near Threatened
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Least Concern
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Near Threatened
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
2 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainRare
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooLeast Concern
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
6 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
  (Probable Increase)
7 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexRare
4 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
6 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
3 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
2 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
Tieyon (FIN03)FinkeRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Cyperus]
Name derivation:
Cyperus from the Latin 'cyperos' and derived from the Greek 'kypeiros', an ancient Greek name used by Homer and Theophrastus for several plants of this genus. Gymnocaulos from the Greek 'gymnos' meaning bare, naked and Latin 'caulis' meaning stem.
Distribution:
Found across most part of South Australia except the far west, growing on banks of creeks, streams, lakes and artesian bores. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Densely tufted perennial sedge, with a short stout horizontal rhizome. Stems erect or spreading, to 70 cm long, cylindrical or somewhat trigonous particularly at the top, rather prominently and closely striate. Leaves reduced to thin membranous sheaths, bracts mostly 3-6, sometimes longer than the inflorescence, usually less than 5 cm long, very rigid and pungent, the margins incurved.Flower spike a dense head or with 1-4 shortly pedunculate globose heads added often proliferous; spikelets very numerous (very rarely few) in the heads, 8-20-flowered, usually rich-brown or pallid, linear to lanceolateovate, acute, 3-5.5 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide; rhachilla not winged; glumes tightly packed, with slightly spreading tips, acute in profile (thinner and less rigid than in C. vaginatus which they otherwise resemble), 3-nerved on the back and sometimes with 1 or 2 faint nerves on each side, shining, 2.5-3 mm long. Flowers throughout the year.
Fruit type:
Brown globular fruit-head.
Seed type:
Black ovoid triangular seed to 2 mm long and 1 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Capitate.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruits by picking off the mature heads, those turning brown and come-off easily.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA17900 (5.18 g)50+3-May-2007RJB70971
Flinders Ranges
19-Sep-2008100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.