Seeds of South Australia
Cyperus pygmaeus (Cyperaceae)
Dwarf Sedge
List of species for Cyperus
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Seed collecting:
July to October
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Eastern, Murray
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [limited habitat]
Witjira (STP06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Baltana (STP07) 
 Near Threatened
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Near Threatened
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Least Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Pedirka (FIN04) 
 Data Deficient   [imprecise location]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling DepressionRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04)GawlerRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))
2 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexRare
5 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsNear Threatened
, Rare
2 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
2 of 2 subregionsFinkeRare
, Data Deficient
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Cyperus]
Name derivation:
Cyperus from the Latin 'cyperos' and derived from the Greek 'kypeiros', an ancient Greek name used by Homer and Theophrastus for several plants of this genus. Pygmaeus from the Latin 'pygmaei' meaning pygmy, dwarf; referring to the species habit.
Distribution:
Found scattered across the north-eastern part of South Australia, north of the Murray River, growing in wet or often temporarily wet places. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Uncommon in South Australia. Rare in Victoria. Uncommon in Western Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Small tufted densely leafy annual sedge to 10 cm high and sometimes very small. Stems triquetrous, sometimes very short or apparently absent. Leaves grass-like, usually longer or much longer than the stems. Involucral bracts 3 to several, leafy, much longer than the inflorescence. Spikelets numerous in a single dense subglobose head, greenish, to 5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, with 8-20-flowers, stalk-less. Flowering between May and August.
Seed type:
Orange-brown ovoid triangular seed to 1.7 mm long and 0.9 mm wide, with a reticulate surface.
Embryo type:
Capitate.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruits either by picking off the mature heads, those turning greenish-brown colour and come-off easily or pull out the whole plant.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Be careful, as the seeds are very small. Seeds are yellowish ovoid and hard. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
27500 (1.925 g)
27500 (1.925 g)
3-Apr-2007RJB71298
Eastern
1-Aug-2007100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
August 201594%7d28d soak in 250 mg/L gibberellic acid +10% smoke water for 24 hrs
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
August 201568%7d42d None
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
August 201552%7d56d Leach in RO water for 7 days
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)