Seeds of South Australia
Cyperus sanguinolentus (Cyperaceae)
Dark Flat-sedge
List of species for Cyperus
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Seed collecting:
January to June
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Murray, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR D)   (Definite Decline)   [Only 2 plants - may be gone]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Cyperus]
Name derivation:
Cyperus from the Latin 'cyperos' and derived from the Greek 'kypeiros', an ancient Greek name used by Homer and Theophrastus for several plants of this genus. Sanguinolentus from the Latin 'sanguis' meaning blood and 'olentus' meaning abounding in; possible referring to the reddish brown colour of the inflorescence.
Distribution:
Found in the southern Flinders Ranges and the southern Mount Lofty Ranges in South Australia,  growing in wet areas around swamps and on stream-banks. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Are in South Australia. Uncommon in Tasmania. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Annual sedge to 40 cm high, sometimes dwarfed to 2-3 cm high. Stems solitary or tufted, ascending to erect, almost setaceous in small plants, coarser in others, triquetrous, striate, smooth. Leaves grass-like, variable, to 3 mm wide, shorter than the stems. Bracts 3 or 4, spreading, at least the lower longer to much longer than the inflorescence. Inflorescence capitate or umbellate, the rays few, short, to 4 cm long. Spikelets clustered, mostly dark, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, to 14 mm long and 2 mm wide, with 8-20-flowers, strongly flattened. Flowering between November and April.
Fruit type:
Flat reddish-brown globular fruit-head.
Seed type:
Dark brown to black ovoid seed to 1.3 mm long and 0.8 mm wide, with small pitted surface.
Embryo type:
Capitate.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruits either by picking off the mature heads, those turning reddish brown and come-off easily. A total of 14,000 seeds were collected and banked for a population at Mount Compass in 2017 with the support of Natural Resources Adelaide & Mount Lofty Ranges
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Be careful, as the seeds are very small. Seeds are yellowish ovoid and hard. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were average to high, ranging from 70% to 80%
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
9800 (1.73 g)
8500 (1.5 g)
3-Jan-2007RJB70977
Northern Lofty
1-Aug-200770%+5°C, -18°C
BGA3700 (0.676 g)20-3012-Mar-2010DJD1810
Southern Lofty
Jun-201080%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.