Seeds of South Australia
Dianella porracea (Liliaceae)
Yellow-anther Flax-lily
List of species for Dianella
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Seed collecting:
November to January
Herbarium regions:
Eastern, Murray, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
Olary Spur (FLB03)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU C2a(i))   (Definite Decline)   [Goats & climate change a threat]
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [restricted habitat]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU C2a(i))   (Definite Decline)   [Goats & climate change a threat]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Dianella]
Name derivation:
Dianella is a diminutive of Diana, the virginal Roman goddess of hunting and the moon. The original species named was found located in the French woods, thus the hunting association. Porracea from the Latin 'porraceus' meaning leek-green; alluding to the colour of the flowers.
Found in two disjunction populations in South Australia, west of Broken Hill and aound the upper reaches of the Murray River, growing on sandy soils and usually in the vicinity of water. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
Native. Rare in South Australia. Rare in Victoria. Uncommon in Queensland. Common in New South Wales.
Plant description:
Perennial lily to 1.2 m high forming tufts to 60 cm wide. Leaves to 20 mm wide, about the same breadth throughout its length; leaf blades glaucous or purplish, thick-textured. Flower-spike a small cyme with 2-10 pale-blue to green-blue flowers; anthers yellow. Flowers in October.
Fruit type:
Round blue berries containing numerous seeds.
Seed type:
Shiny black ovoid seeds to 4 mm long and 3 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Pick the fruits that are soft and purple. These will have hard black seeds inside.
Seed cleaning:
It is best to clean the fruit when it is fresh. Place fruits in a bucket of water and rub the fruit gently by hand to dislodge the seeds.  Then use a sieve to separate unwanted material.  Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
May-1368%8 d24 d aerosol smoke 15 min, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 72 h;
1% agar;
12/12;  /  20°C
May-1358%16 d30 d aerosol smoke 15 min;
1% agar;
12/12;  /  20°C
May-1356%16 d52 d
1% agar;
12/12;  /  20°C
Jun-1248%21 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-1344%8 dNA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 72 h;
1% agar;
12/12;  /  20°C
Jun-1220%35 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jun-1216%35 dNA
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)