Seeds of South Australia
Dissocarpus paradoxus (Chenopodiaceae)
Cannonball Burr
List of species for Dissocarpus
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Olary Spur (FLB03)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern   (Definite Increase)   [likes disturbed areas]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern   (Definite Increase)   [likes disturbed areas]
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern   [prickly]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern   [prickly]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern   (Definite Increase)   [likes disturbed areas]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [not grazed]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [not grazed]
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern   (Definite Increase)   [likes disturbed areas]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [not grazed]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Least Concern
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Near Threatened
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Near Threatened
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Near Threatened
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern   (Definite Increase)   [likes disturbed areas]
Barrier Range Outwash (BHC04) 
 Least Concern   (Definite Increase)   [likes disturbed areas]
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Least Concern   (Definite Increase)   [likes disturbed areas]
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern   (Definite Increase)   [likes disturbed areas]
Simpson Desert (SSD02)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern   [prickly]
Dieri (SSD03) 
 Least Concern   [prickly]
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern   [prickly]
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Least Concern
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Least Concern
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Least Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Least Concern
Pedirka (FIN04) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
4 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
2 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
  (Probable Increase)   [not grazed]
8 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)NullarborNear Threatened
4 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
6 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
3 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
2 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsFinkeLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Dissocarpus]
SA Flora:
Flora of South Australia Edition 5
Name derivation:
Dissocarpus from the Greek 'dissos' meaning two fold and 'carpos' meaning fruit. Paradoxus from Latin meaning contrary to the usual type, anomalous.
Distribution:
Found across the northern part of South Australia, growing on clay or on scalded zones. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Annual or short lived perennial erect or decumbent shrub to 50 cm high with woolly branches. Leaves semiterete, slender, to 15 mm long, densely white woolly. Flowers 8–16, united into woolly spherical axillary clusters. Flower throughout the year.
Fruit type:
Woolly, burr-like fruit to 15 mm diameter, woody in the central part, covered in hooked spines.
Embryo type:
Peripheral
Seed collecting:
Collect fruit that are large, hard and turning brown. Be careful as the fruits are spiny.
Seed cleaning:
Place the fruits in a tray and leave to dry for 1-2 weeks. No further cleaning is required if only the fruits are collected. Store the dried fruit heads with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Germination 89%, seed scarified (covering structure removed) on 1% w/v agar, 16/8 dark/light, 20°C. See http://data.kew.org/sid
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
April 201492%7d7d Seed removed from fruit
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
April 201456%7d7d Seed removed from fruit
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under winter conditions
April 201442%7dNA None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under winter conditions
April 201442%7dNA None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)