Seeds of South Australia
Dodonaea subglandulifera (Sapindaceae)
Peep Hill Hop-bush
List of species for Dodonaea
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Seed collecting:
September to December
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [naturally restricted]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Regionally Extinct   [presumed extinct]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [very localised, recovers with change of landuse]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Dodonaea]
Name derivation:
Dodonaea named after Rembert Dodoens (1517-1585), a Flemish physician and botanist, also known under his Latinized name Rembertus Dodonaeus. Subglandulifera from the Latin 'sub' meaning almost, below and 'glandulifera' means bearing small glands, alluding to the leaflets with glands on the lower surface only.
Endemic to South Australia and found on the east side of the Mount Lofty Ranges and on Yorke Peninsula, growing on low hills on loamy soils associated with rocky outcrops in open woodland, open shrubland and mallee.
Native. Very rare in South Australia
Plant description:
Dioecious perennial shrub to 2 m high. Leaves pinnate to 1.6 cm long; leaflets 9-17, linear, obtuse, entire, or very rarely with 1 or 2 teeth near the apex; to 7.5 mm long and 1.5 mm wid; viscous, with raised glands on the lower surface only. Flowers usually 2 or 3 together; axillary, small yellow-green flowers; sepals 3-4, stamens 6-8. Flowering between February and August.
Fruit type:
Red-brown three or four winged capsule to 7 long and 15 mm wide, sparsely pubescent; wings extending from the base to the apex of the capsule.
Seed type:
Black ovoid seed to 3 mm long and 2 mm wide with a short brown aril.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect winged capsules that contain hard black seeds, usually when capsule is dry and dull red-brown.
Seed cleaning:
Place capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks. Then rub the capsules by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability was average to high, at 50% to 90%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking the seed coat).
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
12225-Nov-2003MKJ 5
Yorke Peninsula
1-Sep-200460%+5°C, -18°C
BGA1350 (4.32 g)20+28-Nov-2007KHB94
Northern Lofty
19-Sep-200850%+5°C, -18°C
10700 (45.1 g)
10700 (45.02 g)
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-0464%4 d16 d hot water (90°C) 10 min, 20% hydrogen peroxide 10 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
14/10;  /  10°C/18°C
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)