Seeds of South Australia
Acacia hakeoides (Leguminosae)
Western Black Wattle
List of species for Acacia
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
October to December
Herbarium regions:
Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern   [doesn't set much seed]
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [limited habitat; edge of range; on roadsides; could be declining]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1+2)   [outliers; suckers; edge of range; P Lang: VU, T Croft: RA d(ii)]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [clonal, mostly roadsides]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern   [tendency to decline on roadsides]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern   [secure in parks]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [northern edge of range]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [clonal, mostly roadsides]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [clonal, mostly roadsides]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern   [short lived, likes fire, prolific seeder]
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern   [short lived, likes fire, prolific seeder]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern   [short lived, likes fire, prolific seeder]
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   [suckers]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [doesn't set much seed; localised]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [edge of range]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern   [short lived, likes fire, prolific seeder]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [short lived, likes fire, prolific seeder]
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [short lived, likes fire, prolific seeder]
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern   [short lived, likes fire, prolific seeder]
Yalata (NUL03)Nullarbor
 Least Concern   [short lived, likes fire, prolific seeder]
Hampton (HAM01)Hampton
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [short lived, likes fire, prolific seeder]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
  [doesn't set much seed]
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [limited habitat; edge of range; on roadsides; could be declining]
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
, Vulnerable
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
6 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [edge of range]
3 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria DesertLeast Concern
  [short lived, likes fire, prolific seeder]
Yalata (NUL03)NullarborLeast Concern
  [short lived, likes fire, prolific seeder]
Hampton (HAM01)HamptonRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [short lived, likes fire, prolific seeder]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Acacia]
Name derivation:
Acacia from the Greek 'akakia' and derived from 'ake' or 'akis' meaning a sharp point or thorn and 'akazo' meaning to sharpen. Dioscorides, the Greek physician and botanist used the word in the 1st century AD for the Egyptian thorn tree, Acacia arabica. Hakeoides from  the genus Hakea (Proteaceae) and Greek 'oides' meaning resemblance, referring to its resemblance to Hakea.
Distribution:
Found in the Nullarbor region in near coastal areas eastward across the Eyre Peninsula into the Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Northern and Southern Lofty, Yorke Peninsula and Murray regions and also the South-Eastern region around Bordertown. Grows in open scrub, associated with Eucalyptus socialis and E. gracilis on brown calcareous soils. Also found in Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Uncommon in Western Australia and Queensland. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Tall, bushy, glabrous, spreading shrubs to 4 m high with numerous, ascending, smooth, grey brown branchlets, slightly angular towards the apex  Leaves narrow obovate- oblanceolate to 12 cm long and 12 mm wide, flat, thick, straight or slightly curved; mid-vein slightly eccentric, lateral veins conspicuous, oblique and reticulate; apex usually obtuse, with a small reddish-brown gland and a  second gland on the upper margin, usually just below the middle of the leaves. Flower-spike axillary with 6-12 yellow, globular rather dense flower-heads. Flowering between July and September.
Fruit type:
Legumes linear, 7-10 cm long, 4-7 mm broad, moniliform, curved, dark brown, apex usually acute; margins thickened, light brown.
Seed type:
Hard, black ellipsoid seed to 6 mm long and 3 mm wide with a long aril.
Embryo type:
Investing.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature pods that are turning brown, with hard, dark seeds inside.
Seed cleaning:
Place the pods in a tray and leave to dry for 1-2 weeks or until the pods begin to split. Then rub the dried pods to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
This species has physical dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking or softening the seed coat).
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
2838
2838
~3016-Dec-2003MKJ 10
Yorke Peninsula
1-Sep-2004100%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
November 200698%12d12d Stored at -18°C (1year). Seed coat nicked with scalpel blade.
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge. Irrigated with RO water
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
March 200495%7d11d Seed sterilised with 20% Hydrogen Peroxide with 3 drops of Tween (10min). Rinsed in sterile water. Seed coat nicked with scalpel blade.
0.8% w/v agar plates
16/8 dark/light  /  20°C Constant
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)