Seeds of South Australia
Elatine gratioloides (Elatinaceae)
Waterwort
List of species for Elatine
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
February to March, October to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [habitat under threat of drying up]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [habitat deteriorating]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [Mt Monster; edge of range]
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2b(i,ii,iii)c(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [likes granite "gnamma holes"; very habitat specific; threats: use of water, draining land, climate change]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [likes granite "gnamma holes"; very habitat specific]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [occurs in dams or where flooded]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [occurs in dams or where flooded]
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [climate sensitive]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [climate sensitive]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [occurs in dams or where flooded]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [spread by birds]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [spread by birds]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv))   (Probable Decline)   [not often seen]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   [highly restricted]
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [easily missed]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [spread by birds]
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Witjira (STP06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Watarru (CER02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainVulnerable
  (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [habitat under threat of drying up]
3 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainVulnerable
, Endangered
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooVulnerable
  (IUCN: VU B2b(i,ii,iii)c(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [likes granite "gnamma holes"; very habitat specific; threats: use of water, draining land, climate change]
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockRare
, Vulnerable
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockRare
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionRare
, Vulnerable
, Endangered
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [easily missed]
Myall Plains (GAW01)GawlerRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [spread by birds]
3 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsRare
2 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesRare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Elatine]
Name derivation:
Elatine a Greek name of a plant, perhaps a hairy toad-flax. Gratioloides means resembling the genus Gratiola (from the Latin 'gratia dei' meaning grace of god, the medieval name for a species used in medicine).
Distribution:
Found scattered across South Australia except for Kangaroo Island, growing in or on the margins of stationary or slow-flowing water to 40 cm deep. Also found in all states.
Status:
Native. Rare in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Aquatic annual with erect stems when submerged, sometimes forming mats up to 2 m across. Leaves ovate to oblong, to 10 mm long and 5 mm wide, larger in submerged plants. Flowers 1 per leaf pair, to 2 mm diameter, white to pink. Flowering between September and January.
Fruit type:
Red to brown capsule to 3 mm with a terminal depression.
Seed type:
Brown reinform seed to 0.7 mm long and 0.2 mm wide, with hexagonal pits.
Embryo type:
Linear.
Seed collecting:
Collect stems with maturing capsules, those that are fat, drying off and contain brown seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the stems in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the plant especially the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a fine sieve to separate the unwanted material. Be very careful as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were average, ranging from 60% to 75%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA145000 (2.09 g)22-Feb-2008RJB77408
South Eastern
19-Sep-200875%+5°C, -18°C
BGA900 (0.04 g)2031-Oct-2007RJB75541
South Eastern
19-Sep-200860%-18°C
BGA11000 (0.255 g)~4018-Nov-2010DJD2049
South Eastern
1-Jan-201275%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
July 201148%21dNA None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberllic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under winter conditions
July 201128%21dNA None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under winter conditions
July 201128%21dNA None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 100mg/L Potassium Nitrate
Incubated under winter conditions
July 20114%49dNA None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 100mg/L Potassium Nitrate
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 20112%77dNA None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 20110%NANA None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 100mg/L Gibberellic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)