Seeds of South Australia
Ethuliopsis cunninghamii (Compositae)
Tall Nut-heads
List of species for Ethuliopsis
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
Lake Eyre, Eastern, Murray
NRM regions:
South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Ethuliopsis]
Name derivation:
Ethuliopsis derivation obscure. Cunninghamii named after Allan Cunningham (1791-1839), an English botanist and explorer, primarily known for his travels to Australia (New South Wales) and New Zealand to collect plants and collector of the type specimen from the Lachlan River, New South Wales.
Distribution:
Found on the eastern side of South Australia from the Murray River to the Northern Territory bounder, growing in heavy clay soil on alluvial flats, and around ephemeral swamps and lakes with lignum, gidgee, coolabah and bluebush. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect herb to 100 cm high with glabrous stems. Leaves oblong to oblanceolate, to 69 mm long and 17 mm wide, bright green, glabrous or with sparse hairs, margins denticulate to dentate with 5–13 pairs of teeth, apex obtuse or acute, base cuneate to obtuse. Flower-heads in small terminal panicles with small white-cream daisy flowers. Flowering likely synchronised to rainfall events.
Fruit type:
Small golden brown heads.
Embryo type:
Spatulate.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are drying off and turning brown.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray for a week to dry. Then rub the heads gently with your hands or a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Be careful as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
April 201420%19dNA None
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
April 20140%NANA None
1% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)