Seeds of South Australia
Eucalyptus cosmophylla (Myrtaceae)
Cup Gum
List of species for Eucalyptus
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
Northern Lofty, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Kangaroo Island
IBRA regions
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   [widespread & stable]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Data Deficient   [edge of range; may not be there; grows with baxteri]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Eucalyptus]
Name derivation:
Eucalyptus from the Greek 'eu' meaning well and 'calyptos' meaning covered; alluding to the cap or lid which covers the stamens in the bud. Cosmophylla from the Greek 'cosmos' meaning ornament and 'phyllon' meaning a leaf; referring to the large, ornamental leaves.
Endemic to South Australia and found on Kangaroo Island and the southern Mount Lofty Rnges, growing on a variety of soils, usually of low fertility in mallee shrubland.
Native. Common in South Australia.
Plant description:
Multi-stemmed tree to 5 m high or less often single-stemmed and up to 10 m with almost entirely smooth, pale buff-grey with whitish and pinkish areas, shedding in plates. Juvenile leaves narrow- to broadly elliptic, but becoming ovate-orbicular. Adult leaves to 150 mm long and 40 mm wide, slightly oblique, narrow- to broad-lanceolate, thick, dull, grey-green. Flowers in shortly pedunculate or sessile umbels of 3 in the axils of the leaves. Buds to 15 mm long and 10 mm wide, on pedicels 0-3 mm long, obovoid or ellipsoid, bud-cap hemispherical to conical, shortly beaked, usually shorter than the bud-base. Flowers cream. Flowering between July and November.
Fruit type:
Large, cup-shaped to cylinder-shaped fruit to 17 mm long and 20 mm wide, usually 2-ribbed with a thick rim, valves broad, usually with the tips just below the rim.
Seed type:
Dark brown to black pyramid-shaped to irregularly-shaped seed to 2 mm long and 2 mm wide, with a wrinkled surface and a narrow wing along the main edge.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect mature fruits that are dark and hard (difficult to break with a finger nail), with the valves un-open any time of year.
Seed cleaning:
Leave the fruits in a breathable container in a dry room for one to two weeks. This allows the valves on the fruit to open and release the seeds. Separate the seeds by placing all the materials into a bucket and shaking it to dislodge the seeds. Pass the material through a sieve to separate the unwanted material. The finer material will contain both seeds (soft) and frass (hard) usually distinguishable from each other but can be very similar in shape and colour. With finer sieves, the seeds can be separated from the frass but this is not essential for storage or propagation. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 95%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
1616-Oct-2003PJA 34
Kangaroo Island
1-Sep-200490%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jun-0467%13 d23 d 20% hydrogen peroxide 10 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
8/16;  /  20°C
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)