Seeds of South Australia
Eucalyptus gracilis (Myrtaceae)
White Mallee
List of species for Eucalyptus
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   (Probable Decline)   [poorly protected; mainly found on roadsides; lots of dev around American River]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [highly localised; on Mawson Plateau]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [not typical habitat]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Least Concern
Hampton (HAM01)Hampton
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooRare
, Vulnerable
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
, Vulnerable
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
5 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [not typical habitat]
3 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 3 subregionsNullarborLeast Concern
, Rare
Hampton (HAM01)HamptonLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Eucalyptus]
Name derivation:
Eucalyptus from the Greek 'eu' meaning well and 'calyptos' meaning covered; alluding to the cap or lid which covers the stamens in the bud. Gracilis from the Latin 'gracilis' meaning slender or graceful; referring to the often graceful and slender habit of the species.
Distribution:
Found throughout much of South Australia except for the northern arid regions and the south east, growing in mallee shrubland on a variety of soils, often overlying limestone. Also found in Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Tree or multi-stemmed mallee to 8 m high with smooth, whitish bark above and rough dark-grey bark at the base. Juvenile leaves elliptical to narrow-lanceolate, dull, blue-green. Adult leaves to 110 mm long and 15 mm wide, alternate, narrow-lanceolate to lanceolate, glossy, darkish-green. Flowers axillary, in groups of 7. Buds to 7 mm long and 5 mm wide, smooth or weakly angled, with individual and group stalks, bud-cap cone-shaped, often shorter than the base. Flowers white. Flowering between February and October.
Fruit type:
Barrel-shaped fruit to 8 mm long and 7 mm wide,  smooth, disc descending, valves 3 or 4 deeply enclosed in the fruit.
Seed type:
Brown ovoid seed to 1.2 mm long and 0.8 mm wide, faintly reticulate.
Embryo type:
Folded.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature fruits that are dark and hard (difficult to break with a finger nail) with the valves un-open anytime of year.
Seed cleaning:
Leave the fruits in a breathable container in a dry room for at least a week. This allows the valves on the fruit to open and release the seeds. Separate the seeds by placing all the materials into a bucket and shaking it to dislodge the seeds.  Pass the material through a sieve to separate the unwanted material. The finer material will contain both seeds (soft) and frass (hard) usually distinguishable from each other but can be very similar in shape and colour. With finer sieves, the seeds can be separated from the frass but this is not essential for storage or propagation. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 95%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily. 1. Germination 100% on 1% w/v agar, 8/16 dark/light, 20°C. 2. Germination 100% on 1% w/v agar, 8/16 dark/light, 25°C. See http://data.kew.org/sid
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
6491
6491
1025-Nov-2003MKJ 2
Yorke Peninsula
1-Sep-200475%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
January 201391%21d21d None
0.7% w/v agar plates
Incubated under summer conditions
January 201387%7d14d None
0.7% w/v agar plates supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberelic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under summer conditions
January 201387%14d14d None
0.7% w/v agar plates supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberelic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
January 201386%14d14d None
0.7% w/v agar plates
Incubated under winter conditions
January 201381%14d14d None
0.7% w/v agar plates supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberelic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under winter conditions
January 201380%14d14d None
0.7% w/v agar plates
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)