Seeds of South Australia
Acacia montana (Leguminosae)
Mallee Wattle
List of species for Acacia
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Seed collecting:
November to December
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   (Probable Decline)   [localised, difficult to find]
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN A2ae)   (Definite Decline)   [Occurs in cleared country. Crosses with A. paradoxa. ]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR A2ae)   (Definite Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN A2ace)   (Definite Decline)   [Very restricted. ]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR A2ae)   (Definite Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs winter rainfall]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs winter rainfall]
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [mostly on roadsides; loss of habitat; crosses with A menzelii]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Acacia]
Name derivation:
Acacia from the Greek 'akakia' and derived from 'ake' or 'akis' meaning a sharp point or thorn and 'akazo' meaning to sharpen. Dioscorides, the Greek physician and botanist used the word in the 1st century AD for the Egyptian thorn tree, Acacia arabica. Montana from the Latin 'montanus' meaning growing on mountains, may refer to the habitat from which the type specimen was collected.
Found on eastern Eyre Peninsula, southern Flinders Ranges, northern Mount Lofty Ranges and the lower Murray region in South Australia, growing in open scrub on hard alkaline red duplex and grey-brown calcareous loamy soils Also found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
Native. Rare in South Australia. Rare in Queensland. Common in the other States.
Plant description:
Viscid, bushy, spreading shrubs to 3.5 m high, sometimes having a small tree-like, rather open, habit with a short trunk. Branchlets slightly angular, striate, finely pubescent but becoming almost glabrous; bark reddish-brown. Leaves narrowly oblong to 4 cm long and 7 mm broad; viscid with 2 equally prominent longitudinal veins with fine reticulate veins between; apex obtuse with a small, brownish, slightly raised and sometimes oblique gland, with a small obscure second gland on the upper margin near the base. Flower-spike simple and axillary, usually twin with globular, mid-yellow flower-heads.  Seeds longitudinal in pod; funicle with 2-3 folds thickening into a cup-shaped aril. Flowering between August and September.
Fruit type:
Brown, linear pod to 50 mm long and 4 mm wide, straight or curved, densely covered with white, woolly hairs; margins slightly constricted between seeds.
Seed type:
Hard black oblong seed to 6 mm along and 2.5 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect mature pods that are turning brown, with hard, dark seeds inside.
Seed cleaning:
Place the pods in a tray and leave to dry for 1-2 weeks or until the pods begin to split. Then rub the dried pods to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
This species has physical dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking or softening the seed coat).
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1588%7 d7 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-154%14 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)