Seeds of South Australia
Eucalyptus leucoxylon ssp. leucoxylon (Myrtaceae)
South Australian Blue Gum
List of species for Eucalyptus
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Lucindale (NCP03)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Near Threatened   [intergrades with other spp]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Near Threatened   [reasonably widespread and stable]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [recruits readily; J Quarmby thinks RA ab]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [recruits readily; J Quarmby thinks RA ab]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [In Wirrabara]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR D)   (Probable Decline)
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Regionally Extinct   [checked by M O'Leary; possibly extinct]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Eucalyptus]
Name derivation:
Eucalyptus from the Greek 'eu' meaning well and 'calyptos' meaning covered; alluding to the cap or lid which covers the stamens in the bud. Leucoxylon from the Greek 'leucos' meaning white and 'xylon' meaning wood; referring to the pale-coloured wood of the species.
Distribution:
Found in the southern Flinders ranges, southern Mount Lofty ranges, Kangaroo Island and the South-east in South Australia, growing in woodland  and open forest in undulating or hilly terrain on loamy soil. Also found in Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in Victoria.
Plant description:
Tree to 30 m tall with mostly smooth yellowish to cream bark throughout, some plate-like loose bark on the lower trunk. Juvenile leaves cordate to broad-lanceolate, dull, green to blue-green. Adult leaves to 185 mm long and 26 mm wide, lanceolate to broad-lanceolate, dull to slightly glossy, green. Flowers axillary in groups of 3 on long individual stalks. Buds to 17 mm long and 7 mm wide, ovoid, bud-cap cone-shaped, equal to or slightly shorter than the base. Flowers cream to pink to red appearing in winter and spring. This subspecies is distinguished from the other four subspecies that occurs in South Australia by having non-waxy juvenile and adult features, long peduncles and pedicels and medium-sized, near-round to barrel-shaped or cylinder-shaped fruits.
Fruit type:
Near-round to barrel-shaped or cylinder-shaped fruits to 13 mm long and 12 mm wide, smooth, disc descending, valves 5 or 6 below the rim.
Seed type:
Brown ovoid seed to 1.5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, with reticulate surface.
Embryo type:
Folded.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature fruits that are dark and hard (difficult to break with a finger nail), with the valves un-open any time of year.
Seed cleaning:
Leave the fruits in a breathable container in a dry room for one to two weeks. This allows the valves on the fruit to open and release the seeds. Separate the seeds by placing all the materials into a bucket and shaking it to dislodge the seeds. Pass the material through a sieve to separate the unwanted material. The finer material will contain both seeds (soft) and frass (hard) usually distinguishable from each other but can be very similar in shape and colour. With finer sieves, the seeds can be separated from the frass but this is not essential for storage or propagation. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
2894
2894
55-Nov-2003PJA 39
Murray
1-Sep-2004100%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
October 200694%14d21d Stored at -18°C (1year).
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge. Irrigated with RO water
Incubated under winter conditions
June 200488%15d37d Seed sterilised with 20% Hydrogen Peroxide with 2 drops of Tween (10min). Rinsed in sterile water.
0.8% w/v agar plates
16/8 dark/light  /  20°C Constant
March 201083%7d7d Stored at -18°C (5 years)
1% w/v agar plates
Incubated under winter conditions
October 200620%42dNA Stored at -18°C (1year).
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge. Irrigated with RO water
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)