Seeds of South Australia
Eucalyptus oleosa ssp. oleosa (Myrtaceae)
Red Mallee
List of species for Eucalyptus
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Murray, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))   [taxonomic issues; lots of unreliable records]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))   [taxonomic issues; lots of unreliable records]
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [(no records) assessed by D Nicolle & P Lang]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [(no records) assessed by D Nicolle & P Lang]
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02)Gawler
 Data Deficient   [check ID]
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03)Nullarbor
 Data Deficient
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal PlainRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))
3 of 8 subregionsGawlerRare
, Data Deficient
2 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Rare
Yalata (NUL03)NullarborData Deficient
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Eucalyptus]
Name derivation:
Eucalyptus from the Greek 'eu' meaning well and 'calyptos' meaning covered; alluding to the cap or lid which covers the stamens in the bud. Oleosa from Latin meaning full of oil; referring to the adult leaves containing plenty of essential oils.
Distribution:
Found across the southern half of the Great Victoria Desert and the Murray region in South Australia, growing in mallee shrubland often in swales between sand dunes or low ridges, on calcareous red sands to loams soils over limestone. Also found in Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Multi-stemmed mallee to 12 m high with smooth bark, grey or brown-grey except on lower parts where it is rough and flaky to fibrous. Seedling leaves crowned, spirally-arranged, narrow. Adult leaves to 130 mm long and 19 mm wide, narrow-lanceolate to lanceolate, glossy, green. Flower axillary in groups of 7-11. Bud to 10 mm long and 4.5 mm wide, smooth, bud-cap cone-shaped to cylinder-shaped, smooth, bud-cap cone-shaped narrower or slightly wider than the base. Flowers white. Flowering between April and November. This subspecies can only be dinstinguished reliably from E. oleosa ssp. oleosa by their seedlings. Where seedlings are not available, subspecies can be identified base on their distribution. This subspecies generally occurs more inland compared to E. oleosa ssp. ampliata which occurs in more coastal regions.
Fruit type:
Round-shaped fruit to 7 mm long and 7 mm wide, disc descending, valves 3 or 4 exserted with attenuate tips.
Seed type:
Dark brown, ovoid seed to 2 mm long and 1 mm wide, shallowly reticulated.
Embryo type:
Folded.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature fruits that are dark and hard (difficult to break with a finger nail), with the valves un-open any time of year.
Seed cleaning:
Leave the fruits in a breathable container in a dry room for at one to two weeks. This allows the valves on the fruit to open and release the seeds. Separate the seeds by placing all the materials into a bucket and shaking it to dislodge the seeds, then pass it through a sieve to separate the unwanted material. The finer material will contain both seeds and frass. With finer sieves, the seeds can be separated from the frass but this is not essential for storage or propagation. Store seeds in airtight containers. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
September 201172%21d28d None
Glass petri dish on 0.7% w/v agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
September 201172%14d35d None
Glass petri dish on 0.7% w/v agar supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberellic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
September 201169%7d35d None
Glass petri dish on 0.7% w/v agar supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberellic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under summer conditions
September 201167%14d28d None
Glass petri dish on 0.7% w/v agar supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberellic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under winter conditions
September 201155%14d60d None
Glass petri dish on 0.7% w/v agar
Incubated under winter conditions
September 201125%21dNA None
Glass petri dish on 0.7% w/v agar
Incubated under summer conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)