Seeds of South Australia
Eucalyptus viminalis ssp. viminalis (Myrtaceae)
Manna Gum
List of species for Eucalyptus
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australian Arid Lands, South East
IBRA regions
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [edge of range; lots of records prob cygnatensis; could be in eastern KI (John Langsford)]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [dieback in mature trees; climate sensitive; does recruit; J Quarmby thinks EN A1ace with decline]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Eucalyptus]
Name derivation:
Eucalyptus from the Greek 'eu' meaning well and 'calyptos' meaning covered; alluding to the cap or lid which covers the stamens in the bud. Viminalis from the Latin 'viminalis' meaning viminous or osier-bearing; referring to the resemblance of the adult foliage to that of the osier willow.
Found in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges in South Australia, growing in high rainfall areas on well-drained soils in open forest vegetation. Also found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Native. Rare in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Single-stemmed erect to spreading tree to 35 m tall with smooth, pale grey to creamy-white bark throughout, sometime with rough and persistent, fissured, grey-brown bark on the lower trunk. Juvenile leaves narrow-lanceolate to lanceolate, glossy, green. Adult leaves to 300 mm long and 30 mm wide, lanceolate, sometimes wavy, glossy, green. Flowers axillary in groups of 3. Buds to 8 mm long and 5 mm wide, bud-cap cone-shaped equal to the base. Flowers white appearing in summer to autumn. This subspecies is distinguished from the other subspecies found in South Australia, Eucalyptus viminalis ssp. cygnetensis which has a smaller habit, rough bark on the trunk and main branches and flowers, buds and fruits mostly in groups of 7.
Fruit type:
Rounded to cone-shaped fruit to 8 mm long and 9 mm wide, disc ascending, valves 3 or 4 above the rim.
Seed type:
Dark brown to black ovoid seed to 2 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, with wrinkled surface.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect mature fruits that are dark and hard (difficult to break with a finger nail), with the valves un-open any time of year.
Seed cleaning:
Leave the fruits in a breathable container in a dry room for one to two weeks. This allows the valves on the fruit to open and release the seeds. Separate the seeds by placing all the materials into a bucket and shaking it to dislodge the seeds. Pass the material through a sieve to separate the unwanted material. The finer material will contain both seeds (soft) and frass (hard) usually distinguishable from each other but can be very similar in shape and colour. With finer sieves, the seeds can be separated from the frass but this is not essential for storage or propagation. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was average, at 70%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
22000 (11 g)
22000 (11 g)
Southern Lofty
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.