Seeds of South Australia
Euphrasia collina ssp. collina (Scrophulariaceae)
Purple Eyebright
List of species for Euphrasia
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
December to February
Herbarium region:
South Eastern
NRM region:
South East
IBRA region
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [checked Bill Barker]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [checked Bill Barker]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [pop in Gum Lagoon]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Euphrasia]
Name derivation:
Euphrasia from the Greek goddess Euphrosyne, one of the Three Fates, whose name means gladness or to delight; alluding to the attractive flowers or even, it is suggested, the application of the juice from some European species was suppose to brighten the eyes, whence its common  name, 'eyebright'. Collina from  the Latin 'collinus' meaning dwelling on hills; alluding to the species habitat.
Distribution:
Found in the lower South-east in South Australia, growing on sand to clay, mainly in sclerophyllous forest, woodland, heath, and swampy sites. Also found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Very rare in South Australia. Uncommon in New South wales. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Perennial herb or undershrub to 80 cm tall, with branches developing well above ground-level. Upper leaves and lowest bracts on main branches to 16.5 mm and 4.4 mm wide, lacking hairs, with 0-2 usually 1 pairs of teeth. Calyx to 7 mm long, externally glabrous, corolla to 14.5 mm long along the upper side, white to pink or violet, sometimes paler inside, often with a yellow blotch behind the lowest lobe, the external pubescence extending at least on to the base of the lower lip, the lower lobes usually emarginate to truncate, rarely obtuse. Flowering between November or December. This subspecies is distinguish from the other five subspecies found in South Australia by having external surface of calyx glabrous and upper leaves on main branches narrow, with 0-2, usually 1, pairs of teeth.
Fruit type:
Brown capsule to 10.5 mm long, glabrous, along erect spike.
Seed type:
Pale yellow brown seed to 1.2 mm long and 1 mm wide, surface strongly reticulated and striated.
Embryo type:
Spatulate.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that are turning a pale straw colour, contain pale seeds and not yet split. Can collect individual capsules or break off the whole fruit spike.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Be careful as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
August 201386%21d28d None
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
August 201376%21d28d None
1% water agar containing 250 mg/L gibberellic acid
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
August 201366%21d56d None
1% water agar containing 100 mg/L potassium nitrate
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)