Seeds of South Australia
Euphrasia collina ssp. osbornii (Scrophulariaceae)
Osborn's Eyebright
List of species for Euphrasia
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Seed collecting:
November to January
Herbarium regions:
Northern Lofty, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South East
IBRA regions
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [Bill Barker - not extinct]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [eastern end]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [different forms exist here: 'Peat Bog' & 'Coastal Cliffs'; needs genetic work]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [only a few locations; different forms exist, woodland form found in Central Hills]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   (Probable Decline)
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Regionally Extinct   [regionally extinct]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling Depression
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv))   (Probable Decline)   [Bill Barker - not extinct]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Euphrasia]
Name derivation:
Euphrasia from the Greek goddess Euphrosyne, one of the Three Fates, whose name means gladness or to delight,; alluding to the attractive flowers or even, it is suggested, the application of the juice from some European species that was supposed to brighten the eyes, whence its common  name, 'eyebright'. Collina from  the Latin 'collinus' meaning dwelling on hills, alluding to the species' habitat. Osbornii named after Professor Theodore George Bentley Osborn (1887-1973), an English-born botanist, ecologist and first professor of Botany, vegetable pathology and Parasitology at the University of Adelaide. 
Endemic to South Australia and found on Yorke Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Mount Lofty Ranges and in upper South-east growing in sclerophyllous woodland, sometimes in sclerophyllous forest, with one population in swamp.
Native. Endangered in South Australia. The SA Seed Bank banked 40,000 seeds from a small population in the Moppa area in 2017, with the support of the AMLR NRM.
Plant description:
Perennial herb. Upper leaves and lowest bracts on main branches to 12 mm long and 9 mm wide, covered by glandular hairs, sometimes mixed with scabrous eglandular hairs, with 1-8 usually 3-6 pairs of teeth. Calyx to 7.5 mm long, externally glandular-hairy; corolla usually to 17.5 mm long along the upper side; white to pink or lavender, paler inside, sometimes with a yellow blotch behind the lowest lobe; externally pubescent over all but the tips of the lobes, the lower lobes usually emarginate; sometimes truncate or obtuse; anther cells to 2.2 mm long excluding the awns, the rear awns to 0.4 mm long. Flowering between August and December. This subspecies is distinguished from the other five subspecies found in South Australia by having the external surface of calyx pubescent, upper leaves on main branches with 1-8 usually 3-6 pairs of teeth and the bristle-like hairs on capsules.
Fruit type:
Brown capsule to 8 mm long, bristly hairs often almost to the base, along an erect spike.
Seed type:
Whitish brown oblong seed to 0.9 mm long and 0.5 mm wide, surface strongly reticulated and striated.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that are turning a pale straw colour, contain pale seeds and not yet split. Can collect individual capsules or break off the whole fruit spike.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Be careful as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From five collections, the seed viability was high, ranging from 85% to 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
26604+26415 (1.41+1.4 g)
85000 (2.79 g)
~1208-Dec-2004PJA 97
Northern Lofty
28-Mar-200695%+5°C, -18°C
17985 (1 g)
17985 (1 g)
358-Dec-2003PJA 11
Kangaroo Island
14-Aug-2006100%+5°C, -18°C
BGA6783 (0.5 g)2013-Dec-2003PJA 8
Kangaroo Island
14-Aug-2006+5°C, -18°C
10500 (3.3 g)
10500 (3.3 g)
Yorke Peninsula
1-Aug-200795%+5°C, -18°C
BGA159400 (5.32 g)100+27-Nov-2008DJD1355
Yorke Peninsula
BGA124000 (4.09 g)240+25-Nov-2013KHB822
Northern Lofty
24-Mar-201585%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1686%21 d35 d 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1685%21 d28 d dry heat 90°C 15 min, 10% smoke water + 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1678%35 d42 d dry heat 90°C oven 15 min;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1674%21 d42 d 10% smoke water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1660%28 d42 d
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)