Seeds of South Australia
Euphrasia collina ssp. tetragona (Scrophulariaceae)
Coast Eyebright
List of species for Euphrasia
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
March, November to January
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [Lake Horden & Lake George]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Near Threatened   [checked Bill Barker]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN C2a(i))   (Probable Decline)   [limestone coast & sandy areas]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [likes disturbance]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Near Threatened
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Euphrasia]
Name derivation:
Euphrasia from the Greek goddess Euphrosyne, one of the Three Fates, whose name means gladness or to delight; alluding to the attractive flowers or even, it is suggested, the application of the juice from some European species was suppose to brighten the eyes, whence its common  name, 'eyebright'. Collina from  the Latin 'collinus' meaning dwelling on hills; alluding to the species habitat. Tetragona from the Greek 'tetra' meaning four and 'gonos' meaning angle.
Found mainly along the coast in the southern part of South Australia with an inland extension into the sandy-mallee heaths of the 90-Mile Desert, growing on sandy soil, in mallee-heaths, plains, heathland, coastal cliff-tops with underlying limestone and on coastal dunes and the swales.
Native. Common in South Australia.
Plant description:
Perennial herb to 47 cm high. Upper leaves and lowest bracts on main branches to 14.3 mm long and 9.6 mm wide, sometimes eglandular-scabrous on the upper surface, with 0-4 usually 1 or 2 pairs of teeth. Calyx to 10 mm long, externally glabrous, corolla to 17 mm long along the upper side, white to deep-mauve or lavender, with a yellow or orange blotch behind the lowest lobe, pubescent externally except on the lobes, the lower lobes emarginate, often deeply so, anther cells to 3 mm long excluding the awns, the rear awns to 0.5 mm long. Flowering between August and February. This subspecies is distinguished from the other five subspecies found in South Australia by having external surface of calyx glabrous, lower corolla lobes externally glabrous, usually emarginate and upper leaves on main branches with 0-4 usually 1 or 2 pairs of teeth.
Fruit type:
Brown capsule to 12 mm long, glabrous or bristly hairs at the very apex, along an erect spike.
Seed type:
Whitish yellow oblong seed to 0.8 mm long and 0.5 mm wide, surface strongly reticulated and striated
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that are turning a pale straw colour, contain pale seeds and not yet split. Can collect individual capsules or break off the whole fruit spike. A total of 73,000 seeds collected from Pennington Bay on Kangaroo Is. for the ASBP project.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Be careful as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high,  at 95%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
1490+1940 (0.14+0.13 g)
4500 (0.305 g)
>10025-Oct-2004DJD 16
Southern Lofty
28-Mar-200695%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1652%21 d56 d 10% smoke water 24 h
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1647%28 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1642%21 dNA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1626%21 dNA dry heat 90°C oven 15 min;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-168%28 dNA dry heat 90°C 15 min, 10% smoke water + 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)