Seeds of South Australia
Exocarpos aphyllus (Santalaceae)
Leafless Ballart
List of species for Exocarpos
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Seed collecting:
October to January
Herbarium regions:
Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   (Probable Decline)   [not well-protected; coastal; not often seen]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   (Probable Decline)   [pops on coast unlikely to regenrate; poor habitat conditions; edge of range; lack of recruitment]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   (Probable Decline)   [Gawler, Marino Rocks records OK but later a disjunct population. Also at Rapid Bay therefore found on coastal edge. ]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [southern edge of range]
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Least Concern
Hampton (HAM01)Hampton
 Least Concern
Barrier Range Outwash (BHC04)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Least Concern
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooVulnerable
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
7 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria DesertLeast Concern
2 of 3 subregionsNullarborLeast Concern
Hampton (HAM01)HamptonLeast Concern
3 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
2 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsRare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Exocarpos]
Name derivation:
Exocarpos from the Greek 'exo' meaning outside and 'caryon' meaning nut; referring to the succulent pedicel resembles a pericarp below the nut. Aphyllus from the Greek 'a' meaning without and 'phyllon' meaning a leaf; alluding to the appearance of the species not having any leaves.
Distribution:
Found across the middle part of South Australia, growing in mallee scrub and woodlands, on sandy, loamy or calcareous soils . Also found in Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Much-branched shrub or small tree to 3.5 m high. Branches stout, rigid, more or less spreading, round or flat-ribbed and stellate-hairy when young. Leaves reduced to ovate caducous scales less than 1 mm long. Inflorescence in short dense sessile spikes or clusters 2-4 mm long with tiny yellow-green flowers. Flowering between August and December.
Fruit type:
Fruit consist of two parts, fleshy, cream turning red pedical (top part) and black ovoid to globular nut (bottom part).
Seed type:
Woody brown globular seed with a fleshy orange aril at tone end.
Embryo type:
Linear underdeveloped.
Seed collecting:
Collect maturing fruits, the top aril is large, succulent, orange to red and bottom bit is hard and black.
Seed cleaning:
Leave fruits to dry and harden before storing. Fleshy aril can be removed but it can be stored with the seed. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
Predation of seeds can be high, however, seed viability is also high. From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species is generally difficult to germinate, it has morphophysiological dormancy and complex germination requirements.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
643 (28.1 g)
1500 (60 g)
~1229-Oct-2004MOL 4686
Gairdner-Torrens
28-Mar-2006100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.