Seeds of South Australia
Exocarpos sparteus (Santalaceae)
Broom Ballart
List of species for Exocarpos
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Seed collecting:
January to May
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [mainly in foothills]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Data Deficient   [not likely in region]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1+2)
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [limited habitat]
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
3 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Rare
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
3 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
, Vulnerable
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
5 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
, Data Deficient
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaVulnerable
  (IUCN: VU D1+2)
2 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
3 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
Yalata (NUL03)NullarborLeast Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony PlainsRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [limited habitat]
2 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Exocarpos]
Name derivation:
Exocarpos from the Greek 'exo' meaning outside and 'caryon' meaning nut, referring to the succulent pedicel resembles a pericarp below the nut. Sparteus means resembling the genus Spartium or weaver's broom.
Distribution:
Found in the north-west and southern parts of South Australia, growing in mallee communities on sandy soils. Also found in all mainland States.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other States.
Plant description:
Shrub or small tree  to 6 m high with pendulous branches. Leaves reduced to linear-lanceolate long scales to 7 mm long.  Flowers sessile in pedunculate spikes 4-18 mm long, yellow-green. Flowers mainly during spring and autumn.
Fruit type:
Fruit consists of two parts; fleshy bright red pedical (top part) and orange to red-brown ovoid to globular nut (bottom part).
Seed type:
Woody brown globular seed to 5 mm long and 4 mm wide, with a fleshy red aril at one end.
Embryo type:
Linear underdeveloped.
Seed collecting:
Collect maturing fruits, the top aril is large, succulent, pink or red and bottom bit is hard and orange to brown.
Seed cleaning:
Leave fruits to dry and harden before storing. Fleshy aril can be removed but it can be stored with the seed. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
Predation of seeds can be high, however, seed viability is also high. From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 90%.
Seed germination:
This species is generally difficult to germinate, it has morphophysiological dormancy and complex germination requirements.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
2250 (118.25 g)
3375 (178.5 g)
>10018-Jan-2005DJD 90
South Eastern
28-Mar-200690%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Dec-1438%42 dNA 400 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
filter paper over moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Dec-1430%49 dNA dry heat 120°C oven 4 min;
filter paper over moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Dec-1418%49 dNA 20% smoke water + 400 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
filter paper over moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Dec-142%91 dNA leached in water 48 h;
filter paper over moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)