Seeds of South Australia
Exocarpos syrticola (Santalaceae)
Coast Ballart
List of species for Exocarpos
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
November to February
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South East
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03)Nullarbor
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Exocarpos]
Name derivation:
Exocarpos from the Greek 'exo' meaning outside and 'caryon' meaning nut; referring to the succulent pedicel resembles a pericarp below the nut. Syrticola meaning sand-dweller; alluding to the species habitat.
Found in coastal dunes from Eyre Peninsula to the lower Southeast of South Australia. Also found in Victoria and Tasmania.
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Densely branched shrub or small tree with slender erect branches, to 3.6 m high. Leaves reduced to lanceolate scales to 1.5 mm long. Inflorescence a pubescent rhachis, yellow green, glabrous 3-5 mm long. Flowering betwen October and December.
Fruit type:
Fruit consist of two parts, fleshy, whitish or pale-pink pedical (top part) and purple ovoid to globular nut bottom part).
Seed type:
Woody brown globular seed to 4 mm long and 3 mm wide with a fleshy orange aril at tone end.
Embryo type:
Linear underdeveloped.
Seed collecting:
Collect maturing fruits, the top aril is large, succulent, whitish or pink and bottom bit is hard and dark purple.
Seed cleaning:
Leave fruits to dry and harden before storing. Fleshy aril can be removed but it can be stored with the seed. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
Predation of seeds can be high, however, seed viability is also high. From three collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from 95% to 100%.
Seed germination:
This species is generally difficult to germinate, it has morphophysiological dormancy and complex germination requirements.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA813 (33.34 g)1721-Jan-2005MKJ 76
South Eastern
1709 (44.44 g)
1900 (50 g)
4511-Jan-2005DJD 89
Eyre Peninsula
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Aug-1372%40 d93 d 400 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
12/12;  /  20°C
Aug-1332%49 dNA aerosol smoke 15 min, 400 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
12/12;  /  20°C
Aug-1320%49 dNA fruit partially removed;
1% agar;
12/12;  /  20°C
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)