Seeds of South Australia
Frankenia crispa (Frankeniaceae)
Hoary Sea-heath
List of species for Frankenia
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Seed collecting:
December to February
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula
NRM regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke
IBRA regions
Olary Spur (FLB03)Flinders Lofty Block
 Data Deficient
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Data Deficient
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Data Deficient
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Data Deficient
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Data Deficient
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Data Deficient
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04)Stony Plains
 Data Deficient
Diamantina-Eyre (CHC04)Channel Country
 Data Deficient
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Frankenia]
Name derivation:
Frankenia named after Johan Frankenius (1590-1661), a Swedish botanist. Crispa from Latin meaning curled or wrinkled; referring to the tip of the petals.
Distribution:
Found scattered in the central part of South Australia, growing around salt lakes and saline depressions. Also found in New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Uncommon in South Australia. Rare in the other states. 
Plant description:
Low, densely branched shrub with branches covered in dense recurved hairs, internodes to 13 mm long. Leaves on long-shoot to 6 mm long with petiole to1.5 mm long, narrowed markedly and more or less cylindric distally where 0.2–0.3 mm wide, usually hairy below, leaf-blade narrowly oblong, subterete, to 1 mm wide, margins tightly revolute, midrib prominent, raised on lower surface, surfaces greyish yellow-green, punctate, upper surface glabrous, lower surface hairy or glabrous. Short-shoot leaves similar. Flowers 2–7 in axillary spike or solitary with pink flowers. Calyx 5-lobed, to 7 mm long and 1.5 mm wide near apex, wholly covered in short hairs or glabrous towards base; petals 5, to 10 mm long, stamens 6, style-branches 3, ovules 3. Flowering between October and December.
Fruit type:
Brown cylindrical capsule.
Seed type:
Light brown, narrow ovoid seed to 3.5 mm long and 1 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Look at the tip of branches for dried flower heads. Collect the heads that are cylindrical, brown, slightly fat at the base. This should contain small ovoid seed.
Seed cleaning:
Place the flower heads in a tray and leave to dry for at least a week. Then rub the dried heads gently to dislodge the seeds. Use a fine sieve to separate the seeds from the unwanted material. Be careful as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
Seed set can be low but viability is high. From two collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from 80% to 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA188 (0.1194 g)100+28-Jan-2010KHB362
Flinders Ranges
Jun-2010100%-18°C
BGA 
MSB
4400 (3.37 g)
4400 (3.37 g)
5014-Dec-2010KHB362
Flinders Ranges
1-Jan-201280%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
July 2011100%7d7d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 100mg/L Potassium Nitrate
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 2016100%7d7d soak in water over night
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 201196%7d7d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 100mg/L Potassium Nitrate
Incubated under winter conditions
July 201196%7d7d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 201196%7d7d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberellic adid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 201190%7d7d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberellic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under winter conditions
July 201187%7d7d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)