Seeds of South Australia
Frankenia crispa (Frankeniaceae)
Hoary Sea-heath
List of species for Frankenia
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Seed collecting:
December to February
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula
NRM regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke
IBRA regions
Olary Spur (FLB03)Flinders Lofty Block
 Data Deficient
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Data Deficient
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Data Deficient
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Data Deficient
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Data Deficient
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Data Deficient
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04)Stony Plains
 Data Deficient
Diamantina-Eyre (CHC04)Channel Country
 Data Deficient
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Frankenia]
Name derivation:
Frankenia named after Johan Frankenius (1590-1661), a Swedish botanist. Crispa from Latin meaning curled or wrinkled (crimped), referring to the tip of the petals.
Found scattered in central  South Australia growing around salt lakes and saline depressions. Also found in New South Wales and Victoria.
Native. Uncommon in South Australia. Rare in the other States. 
Plant description:
Low, densely branched shrub with branches covered in dense recurved hairs; internodes to 13 mm long. Leaves on a long-shoot to 6 mm long with petiole to1.5 mm long, narrowed markedly and more or less cylindrical distally, where 0.2–0.3 mm wide, usually hairy below; leaf-blade narrowly oblong, subterete, to 1 mm wide; margins tightly revolute, midrib prominent, raised on lower surface; surfaces greyish yellow-green, punctate, upper surface glabrous, lower surface hairy or glabrous. Short-shoot leaves similar. Flowers 2–7 in axillary spike or solitary, with pink flowers. Calyx 5-lobed, to 7 mm long and 1.5 mm wide near apex, wholly covered in short hairs or glabrous towards base; petals 5, to 10 mm long; stamens 6; style-branches 3; ovules 3. Flowering between October and December.
Fruit type:
Brown cylindrical capsule.
Seed type:
Light brown, narrow ovoid seed to 3.5 mm long and 1 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Spatulate; fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Look at the tip of branches for dried flower heads. Collect the heads that are cylindrical, brown, slightly fat at the base. This should contain small ovoid seed.
Seed cleaning:
Place the flower heads in a tray and leave to dry for at least a week. Then rub the dried heads gently to dislodge the seeds. Use a fine sieve to separate the seeds from the unwanted material. Be careful as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
Seed set can be low but viability is high. From two collections, the seed viability was high, ranging from 80% to 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA188 (0.1194 g)100+28-Jan-2010KHB362
Flinders Ranges
4400 (3.37 g)
4400 (3.37 g)
Flinders Ranges
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-11100%7 d7 d
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-16100%7 d7 d leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1196%7 d7 d
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1196%7 d7 d
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1196%7 d7 d
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1190%7 d7 d
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1187%7 d7 d
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)