Seeds of South Australia
Frankenia pauciflora var. gunnii (Frankeniaceae)
Southern Sea-heath
List of species for Frankenia
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
Lake Eyre, Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Data Deficient   [tolerates salinity; lacking information]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [lack of habitat]
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Data Deficient   [query ID]
Murnpeowie (STP03)Stony Plains
 Data Deficient   [query ID]
Witjira (STP06) 
 Data Deficient   [query ID]
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)KanmantooData Deficient
  [tolerates salinity; lacking information]
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
  (Probable Increase)
3 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
Yalata (NUL03)NullarborLeast Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05)Simpson Strzelecki DunefieldsData Deficient
  [query ID]
2 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsData Deficient
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Frankenia]
Name derivation:
Frankenia named after Johan Frankenius (1590-1661), a Swedish botanist. Pauciflora from the Latin 'paucus' meaning few and 'florus' meaning flowers; referring to the small number of flowers produced by the species. Gunnii named after Ronald Campbell Gunn (1808-1881), a British botanist and legislator in Launceston, Tasmania.
Found scattered across the southern part of South Australia, primarily along the coast, growing on the edges of saltmarsh and salt lakes. Also found in Victoria and Tasmania.
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
A small, much branched perennial shrub to 90 cm high. Leaves to 9 mm long and 2.2 mm wide, elliptic, oblong, ovate or obovate, mid-vein inconspicuous to abaxially raised, not broad or flat or very prominent. Inflorescence a terminal or axillary cluster bearing 2-25 flowers, petals 5, rarely 4, spathulate, to 10.5 mm long, white. Flowers throughout the year. This variety differ from the other variety found in South Australia by having shorter but wider leaf ratio of 5:1 or less (4:1 or greater in F. pauciflora var. fruticulosa), mid-vein inconspicuous (mid-vein broad, flat, very prominent in F. pauciflora var. fruticulosa) and 7-18 ovules (6-13 in in F. pauciflora var. fruticulosa).
Fruit type:
Small brown cylindrical capsule.
Seed type:
Very small light brown, ovoid seed to 1 mm long and 0.5 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Look at the tip of branches for dried flower heads. Collect the heads that are cylindrical, brown, slightly fat at the base. This should contain small ovoid seed.
Seed cleaning:
Place the flower heads in a tray and leave to dry for at least a week. Then rub the dried heads gently to dislodge the seeds. Use a fine sieve to separate the seeds from the unwanted material. Be careful as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
Seed set can be low but viability is high. From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 92%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA66000 (8.58 g)20+21-Dec-2013JRG52
South Eastern
27-Feb-2014 (Xray 92%)-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jun-13100%7 d14 d
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under winter conditions
Jun-1396%7 d14 d
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jun-1378%7 d21 d
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jun-1372%7 d21 d
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)