Seeds of South Australia
Allocasuarina verticillata (Casuarinaceae)
Drooping She-oak
List of species for Allocasuarina
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Near Threatened
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   [glossy black cockatoo food]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern   [used in reveg]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern   [used in reveg]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [edge of range]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))   (Probable Decline)   [west of river is stronghold; not regenerating well]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Near Threatened   [seedlings eaten by rabbits; easy to revegetate]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionNear Threatened
, Rare
2 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Allocasuarina]
Name derivation:
Allocasuarina from the Greek 'allos' meaning other or different, indicating the relationship with the genus Casuarina (first used by Rumphius (1743) in allusion to the supposed resemblance of the "foliage" of Casuarina equisetifolia to the plumage of the Cassowary, which is from the Malay 'kesuari', later being latinised as Casuarius). Verticillata from the Latin 'verticillatus' meaning whorl, referring to the leaves arranged in whorls, or seemingly so.
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia from the Gammon Ranges to the lower South-east, growing in a wide range of habitats. Also found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:

Dioecious tree to 9 m tall with drooping branches on the male tree. Female trees are erect and bear cones.

Articles (stem segment) terete, slightly rough, striate to 4 cm long and 1.5 mm diameter, with 9-12 spreading teeth (reduced leaves) at the end. Male and female flowers on different plants. Male spikes to 12 cm long, thick, 3 or 4 whorls per cm. Female flower yellow to 2.5 mm long. Flowers throughout the year.

Fruit type:
Large woody cylindrical cone with numerous valves.
Seed type:
Dark brown, smooth and semi-flat seeds to 10 mm long, with a papery wing at one end.
Embryo type:
Investing.
Seed collecting:
Cones can be collected anytime as mature cones remain on the female plant. Collect cones that have closed valves from the lower part of the stem as these are more mature.
Seed cleaning:
Place cones in a tray and leave to dry for 2-3 weeks. This will allow the valves to dry and open releasing the seeds. Place the dried cones in a bucket and shake gently to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate seeds from the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was low, at 30%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
8194
8194
147-Oct-2003PJA 33
Murray
1-Sep-200430%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
November 200680%35d63d Stored at -18°C (1year)
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
March 201079%17d25d Stored at -18°C (5years)
1% water agar.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
October 201462%10d27d None
0.7% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
November 200660%28d70d Stored at -18°C (1year)
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under winter conditions
October 201460%10d34d None
0.7% water agar
14 hours  /  15°C (10hrs); 30°C (14hrs)
October 201456%10d16d None
0.7% water agar
10 hours  /  15°C (20hrs); 5°C (4hrs)
July 200445%15d28d Seed sterilised with 20% Hydrogen Peroxide with 2 drops of Tween (10min). Rinsed in sterile water.
0.8% water agar
10 hours  /  10°C (14hrs); 20°C (10hrs)
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)