Seeds of South Australia
Gonocarpus tetragynus (Haloragaceae)
Common Raspwort
List of species for Gonocarpus
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Seed collecting:
November to March
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Least Concern
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Least Concern
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Near Threatened
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Near Threatened
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
4 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Gonocarpus]
Name derivation:
Gonocarpus from the Greek 'gonia' meaning angle, corner and 'carpos' meaning fruit; referring to its ribbed fruits. Greek 'tetra' meaning four and 'gynes' meaning a woman; referring to its ovary with 4 chambers (locules).
Distribution:
Found in the south-eastern part of South Australia, from the Flinders Ranges to the lower South-east, growing in the understorey of dry sclerophyll forest, scrubland and heathland. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect or ascending perennial herb to 30 cm tall with smooth or weakly 4-ribbed, scabrous stems. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, 12 mm logn 7 mm, margins thickened, serrate with 4-8 short teeth, strigose. Inflorescence a leafy-spike at terminal of stems with numerous green to red flowers with 8 stamens, ovary with 4-locules. Flowering between October and January.
Fruit type:
Small silver-grey ellipsoid fruit to 1.5 mm long and 1 mm wide, with 8-ribbed and 2-3 calluses between the ribs, glabrous or scabrous surface.
Seed type:
Considered the same as the fruit.
Seed collecting:
Collect maturing fruits, those that are fat and turning grey, by running your hands along the fruit-spikes.
Seed cleaning:
Place the fruit in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks. No further cleaning is required if only fruits were collected. If collected with other material, use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
October 201474%10d27d Soak in 250 mg/L GA3 for 24 hours
0.7% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
October 201454%10d49d None
0.7% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
October 201448%16dNA Soak in 250 mg/L GA3 for 24 hours
0.7% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
October 201448%10dNA Soak in 250 mg/L GA3 for 24 hours
0.7% water agar
Incubated under summer conditions
October 201442%10dNA None
0.7% water agar
Incubated under summer conditions
October 201434%16dNA None
0.7% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)