Seeds of South Australia
Gratiola pumilo (Scrophulariaceae)
Dwarf Brooklime
List of species for Gratiola
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Seed collecting:
November to January
Herbarium regions:
Murray, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Glenelg Plain (NCP02)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [habitat specific]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Data Deficient   [checked Bill Barker]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [annual; needs lots of water; climate sensitive; spraying a threat, stock]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [annual; needs lots of water; climate sensitive; 3 known pops Mt Crawford area]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [could be gone]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)   [comes up after floods]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Gratiola]
Name derivation:
Latin 'gratia dei' grace of god, medieval name for the species Gratiola officinalis used in medicine and Latin 'pumilio' a dwarf
Distribution:
Grows in seasonally inundated, damp ground
Status:
Rare
Plant description:
Small, slender, erect, rarely decumbent perennial herb, 4-35 cm high. Leaves narrow-ovate to narrow-ovate-elliptic, 0.5-2.5 x 0.1-0.8 cm, sessile, glabrous or with scattered, tiny to coarse, eglandular hairs. Flowers single in bract axils, corolla to 7–9 mm long, white, sparsely hairy. Flowering November - January, April.
Fruit type:
Capsule broad-ovoid, 2.7-6 mm long, topped by the caducous style 1.5-1.8 mm long
Seed type:
Seed oblong-cylindrical, reticulate, dark brown, 0.4-0.7 mm long
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA54000 (1.31 g)100+21-Jan-2011Joe Quarmby
Southern Lofty
1-Jan-201295%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1196%8 d8 d
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1190%14 d14 d
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1188%14 d14 d
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1176%14 d14 d
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1172%8 d14 d
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1162%8 d14 d
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)