Seeds of South Australia
Gunniopsis quadrifida (Aizoaceae)
Sturt's Pigface
List of species for Gunniopsis
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Northern Flinders (FLB05)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Near Threatened
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Near Threatened
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Least Concern
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [Edge of range. Stock will graze; persists; could be increasing; seeds readily; likes sandy areas]
Barrier Range Outwash (BHC04) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [Stock will graze; persists; could be increasing; seeds readily; likes sandy areas]
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [Stock will graze; persists; could be increasing; seeds readily; likes sandy areas]
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [Stock will graze; persists; could be increasing; seeds readily; likes sandy areas]
Simpson Desert (SSD02)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern
Dieri (SSD03) 
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Least Concern
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Least Concern
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Least Concern
Everard Block (CER03)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Least Concern
Pedirka (FIN04) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
2 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
8 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
3 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Rare
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)NullarborRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
4 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
7 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
3 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
Everard Block (CER03)Central RangesLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsFinkeLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Gunniopsis]
Name derivation:
Gunniopsis from the genus Gunnia named after Ronald Campbell Gunn (1808-1881), a Tasmania botanist and from the Greek 'opsis' meaning resembling; alluding to the resembles of the genus to the genus GunniaQudrifida from the Latin 'quadri' meaning four and 'fidus' meaning split; referring to the capsule with 4-ribbed.
Distribution:
Found across the northern half of South Australia, growing on saline soils especially on the margins of salt lakes and clay pans. Also found in Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Uncommon in Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales. Common in Western Australia.
Plant description:
Densely papillose woody perennial to 40 cm high, occasionally to 1 m. Leaves narrow-linear to terete, fleshy, to 30 mm long and 5 mm wide. Flowers solitary, terminal or in the forks of the branches, white. Flowers throughout the year.
Fruit type:
4-ribbed capsule to 10 mm diameter, ribs keeled, valves becoming bifid on opening.
Seed type:
Black reniform seed to 1.5 mm long, covered in round tubercules.
Embryo type:
Peripheral.
Seed collecting:
Pick mature capsules when they turn a straw colour and contain hard dark seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for at least a week. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
6100 (10.3 g)
6100 (10.3 g)
50+7-Dec-2005DJD303
Eyre Peninsula
28-Jul-2006100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
June 20122%NANA None
40mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberellic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 20120%NANA None
40mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under winter conditions
June 20120%NANA None
40mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberellic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under winter conditions
June 20120%NANA None
40mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 100mg/L Potassium Nitrate
Incubated under winter conditions
June 20120%NANA None
40mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 100mg/L Potassium Nitrate
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 20120%NANA None
40mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)