Seeds of South Australia
Hakea francisiana (Proteaceae)
Grass-leaf Hakea
List of species for Hakea
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Eyre Peninsula
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [likes white sand]
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Hakea]
Name derivation:
Hakea named after Baron Christian Ludwig von Hake (1745-1818), a German horticulturalist and patron of botany. Francisiana named after George William Francis (1800-1865), collector of the type specimen and the first director of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens from 1855-1865.
Found on the northern Eyre Peninsula, Nullarbor and the western parts of South Australia, growing on sandy soil in dunes or on sand plain, in shrubland or woodland. Also found in Western Australia.
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in Western Australia.
Plant description:
Erect shrub or small tree to 8 m tall, with patchily hairs on branchlets. Leaves ascending, flat, linear, to 260 mm long and16 mm wide, finely striate, bluntly mucronate, sparsely pubescent to glabrous. Inflorescence large spike with 150–500 pale to deep pink or red to orange-red flowers. Flowering between July and October.
Fruit type:
Greyish-brown woody ovoid fruit to 26 mm long and 14 mm wide, with a short pointy beak. Fruit split into two to reveal two seeds.
Seed type:
Dark brown to black ovoid seed to 7 mm long and 2 mm wide (13 mm long and 7 mm wide including the wing that extend down one sides of seed).
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect mature woody fruit that are greyish-brown and not split. These will contain seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the woody fruit in a tray and leave to dry until it split open. Place the dried fruit in a bucket and shake to dislodge the seeds from the valves. Separate the seeds from the fruit and store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from 90% to 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily without pre-treatment.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
5310 (62.19 g)
6000 (70.8 g)
>6029-Oct-2004MOL 4693
BGA1500 (19.21 g)30-407-Sep-2005HPV2555
Eyre Peninsula
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.