Seeds of South Australia
Hakea rugosa (Proteaceae)
Wrinkled Hakea
List of species for Hakea
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   [not as common as H rostrata]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [needs blue-gum woodlands & dampness; in lots of roadsides where it is sprayed out; lots of old plants]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened   [disappearing from some hills face zones; needs blue-gum woodlands & dampness]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [no recruitment]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs water/swamps; limited extent; threats: drought/water harvesting]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Near Threatened
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
3 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockNear Threatened
, Rare
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
, Endangered
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
, Vulnerable
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Hakea]
Name derivation:
Hakea named after Baron Christian Ludwig von Hake (1745-1818), a German horticulturalist and patron of botany. Rugosa from the Latin 'rugosus' meaning somewhat wrinkled; possible referring to the surface of the fruit.
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia, from the southern Flinders Ranges to the lower South-east, growing in mallee scrub or coastal heath on sand or loam. Also found in Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in Victoria.
Plant description:
Low spreading intricate bush or rounded compact shrub to 2.5 m high with white hairs on branchlets and young leaves.  Leaves rigid, terete, to 60 mm long and 1.3 mm wide, pungent tip, glaucous. Inflorescence axillary clusters with 6–10 cream-white scented flowers. Flowering between August and October.
Fruit type:
Whitish-brown woody S-shaped fruit to 22 mm long and 16 mm wide, with a coarse wrinkled surface and a beak at one end. Fruit split into two to reveal two seeds.
Seed type:
Brown to black ovoid seed to 7 mm long and 4 mm wide (13 mm long and 8 mm wide including the wing that extend narrowly down both sides of seed).
Embryo type:
Investing.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature woody fruit that are hard, brown and not split. These will contain seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the woody fruit in a tray and leave to dry until it split open. Fruits can be placed in the oven at low temperatures to achieve the same result. Place the dried fruit in a bucket and shake to dislodge the seeds from the valves. Separate the seeds from the fruit and store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily without pre-treatment.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
August 201590%7d14d soak in 250 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 hrs
1% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
August 201588%14d14d None
1% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)