Seeds of South Australia
Helichrysum leucopsideum (Compositae)
Satin Everlasting
List of species for Helichrysum
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Seed collecting:
December to February
Herbarium regions:
Nullarbor, Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [only pop known in Honans]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   [widespread in coastal areas]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Near Threatened   [edge of range]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [marginal]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
4 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
5 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [marginal]
2 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria DesertLeast Concern
Yalata (NUL03)NullarborLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Helichrysum]
Name derivation:
Helichrysum from the Greek 'helios' meaning sun and 'chrysos' meaning gold; alluding to the patent yellow laminae of the involucres of some everlastings. Leucopsideum from Greek meaning like white; referring to the appearance of the specie.
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia, growing on deep sand in mallee vegetation or coastal scrub. Also found in Western Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Deep-rooted perennial herb to 50 cm tall with a woody rhizome or rootstock. Stems several, branched or unbranched, erect to ascending, with a sparse to moderately dense woolly-cobwebby hairs and scattered inconspicuous glandular hairs. Leaves linear-elliptic to narrowly oblanceolate or linear, with narrowly recurved margins, to 50 mm long and 5 mm wide, on the upper side sparsely cobwebby-hairy, on the underside densely woolly-cobwebby with scattered minute glandular hairs on both sides. Flower-heads terminal and usually solitary on long leafy stems or sometimes 2 or 3 in an open cluster with white daisy flowers. Flowering between October and December.
Fruit type:
White, dry, papery daisy head.
Seed type:
Brown oblong seed to 2.5 mm long and 0.8 mm wide, with pappus to 4-times the seed length. 
Embryo type:
Spatulate.
Seed collecting:
Collect whole heads that are drying off and fluffy or collect just the seeds by plucking it off with your fingers. Mature seeds are easily removed.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray for a week to dry. Then pluck the seeds from the head with your finders. Viable seeds will be fat and brown. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
10685 (6.5+6.5 g)
10685
>10016-Dec-2003PJA 64
Yorke Peninsula
23-Mar-2006+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Mar-1574%7 d14 d 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-1570%7 d21 d
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-1562%7 d14 d 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-1552%7 d49 d
1% agar;
Incubated under summer conditions
Mar-1550%7 d28 d
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-1534%7 dNA 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under summer conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)