Seeds of South Australia
Heliotropium pachyphyllum (Boraginaceae)
Thick-leaved Heliotrope
List of species for Heliotropium
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Eastern
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA region
Murnpeowie (STP03)Stony Plains
 Vulnerable   (Probable Decline)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Heliotropium]
Name derivation:
Heliotropium from the Greek 'helios' meaning sun and 'tropos' meaning turn; probably alluding to an early belief that the flowers turned to face the sun. Pachyphyllum from the Greek 'pachys' meaning thick and 'phyllon' meaqning leaf.
Distribution:
Found in the north-eastern part of South Australia, at Mount Fiddon and Cooper Creek area, growing on calcrete rise, red sand plain and in skeletal soil on sandstone range. Also found in Western Australia and Northern Territory.
Status:
Native. Very rare in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Perennial, ascending to spreading-ascending herb to 60 cm tall with dense silky hairs on the stems, leaves and calyx. Leaves elliptic, ovate to obovate, to 40 mm long and 18 mm wide, plane to slightly rugose, flat (and often very slightly revolute), dense silky hairs. Inflorescence long spike with white to pale yellow bell-shaped flowers. Flowering throughout the year depending on rain.
Fruit type:
Brown ovate capsule, hairy.
Seed type:
Whitish to pale brown sectored seed to 2.5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, covered in long white hairs.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsule, those that are drying off, turning brown and contain dark, hard seeds inside. Can collect individual fruit cluster or break off whole heads.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the fruits gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were average, at 60%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA20350+4-Sep-2013KHB710
Flinders Ranges
27-Feb-201460%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
May-1361%7 d15 d 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
12/12;  /  20°C
May-130%NANA
1% agar;
12/12;  /  20°C
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)