Seeds of South Australia
Banksia marginata (Proteaceae)
Silver banksia
List of species for Banksia
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Least Concern
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Least Concern
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern   [needs irregular fire intervals; almost rhizomous; a number of forms are noted; 'banksia heathland' as a community is almost gone]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern   [needs irregular fire intervals; almost rhizomous; a number of forms are noted; 'banksia heathland' as a community is almost gone]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)   [no recruitment]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)   [no recruitment]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)   [no recruitment]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)   [no recruitment]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [needs high rainfall]
Talia (EYB04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [limited habitat, lack of regeneration]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [edge of range]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [needs fire regularly in mosaic burns]
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
4 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Endangered
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockNear Threatened
, Vulnerable
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Banksia]
Name derivation:
Banksia named after Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820), a 19th century botanist and president of the Royal Society who travelled with Captain Cook on his first voyage to 'New Holland' in 1770. Marginata from the Latin 'marginatus' meaning bordered; referring to recurved leaf margins on some forms.
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia, growing on sandy to clay soils in sclerophyllous heath, woodlands and forest. Also found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Tall shrub or small tree to 5 m tall. Leaves green with a square tip, smooth on the top side and white and hairy on the underside. Young leaves hairy all over with small serrations. Flowers are yellow in a large cylindrical cluster. Flowering throughout the year.
Fruit type:
Large, hairy, woody cone with numerous valves.
Seed type:
Flat, dark brown, pyramid shaped seeds to 10 mm long with a large papery wing at one end.
Embryo type:
Investing.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature cones with obvious un-open valves. These will contain viable seeds. Mature cones can be hard to fine as very few are produced.
Seed cleaning:
Place cones in a tray and leave to dry until the valves open. Cones can be placed in the oven at low temperatures to achieve the same result. Place the dried cones in a bucket and shake to dislodge the seeds from the valves. Separate the seeds from the cone and store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 95%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily without pre-treatment.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
3142
3142
619-Jan-2004MKJ 15
Kangaroo Island
1-Sep-200495%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
August 200681%34d62d Stored at -18°C for 1 year.
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under winter conditions
July 200476%33d43d Surface sterilised in 20% H2O2 solution (10mins).
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
March 201075%25d35d Stored at -18°C for 5 years.
1% water agar.
Incubated under winter conditions
August 200638%41dNA Stored at -18°C for 1 year.
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)