Seeds of South Australia
Pauridia vaginata var. vaginata (Hypoxidaceae)
Large Yellow-star
List of species for Pauridia
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Seed collecting:
November to January
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Near Threatened
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern   [undercollected ]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Least Concern
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [1 record from Cygnet River; small annual, red-gum flats; limited habitat]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Near Threatened   [higher rainfall sp]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened   [higher rainfall sp]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [limited habitat]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [limited habitat]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [northern outlier; climate sensitive; needs dampness]
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs rich soil & dampness]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainNear Threatened
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooNear Threatened
, Vulnerable
4 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockNear Threatened
, Endangered
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke BlockRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs rich soil & dampness]
2 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionRare
, Vulnerable
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Pauridia]
Name derivation:
Pauridia from the Greek 'pauros' or 'pauron' meaning small; referring to the small habit of some species in the genus (formally Hypoxis from the Greek 'hypo' meaning beneath and 'oxys 'meaning sharp and applied by Linnaeus in the sense of "acute beneath"; referring to the fruit capsule which is contracted at the base). Vaginata from the Latin 'vaginatus' meaning protected by a sheath; referring to the bracteole sheathing the stem.
Found on the Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, southern Mount Lofty Ranges and the South-east in South Australia, growing in grassland and woodland that may be sesaonally inundated. Also found in Western Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Native. Uncommon in South Australia. Rare in Western Australia, New South Wales and Tasmania. Common in Victoria.
Plant description:
Glabrous herbs to 35 cm high growing from an underground corm (to 2 cm) each year. Leaves linear, subulate or flat, to 35 cm long and 3.5 mm wide, margins, at least toward base, usually with irregularly spaced, small tooth-like outgrowths. Inflorescences 1–4 stalks to 35 cm long with 1-2 yellow flowers to 25 mm wide, bracteole closely sheathing the stem for the greater part and stigma lobes equal in length to, or longer than the style. Flowering between  August and November.
Fruit type:
Brown ellipsoid capsule to 14 mm long, containing numerous tiny black seeds.
Seed type:
Tiny round black seed to 1 mm long, covered in dimple-like wrinkles.
Embryo type:
Linear underdeveloped.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those drying off and turning brown with black seeds inside. Slightly greener capsules can be collected if the seeds inside are fat, hard and black.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1-2 weeks depending on the the stage of the capsules. Then rub the capsules with your fingers to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was average, at 75%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA1790 (0.412 g)5016-Nov-2007RJB74292
Southern Lofty
3400 (1.17 g)
3400 (1.17 g)
Southern Lofty
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)